Born May 6 (some sources say May 7), 1861, in Calcutta, Rabindranath Tagore became one of the prolific writers in the world, poet, artist, dramatist, musician, novelist, and essayist. He was completely at home both in Bengali and in English, in part because he was educated at University College, London, in 1879-80. He had become the national poet of Bengal by the time of his Golden Jubilee in Calcutta on January 28, 1912, but his international fame only came in November 1913 when he won the Nobel Prize for literature for Gitanjali, a collection of poetry initially brought out in Bengali in 1910 and then translated by the poet and published in English in 1912 with an introduction by W. B. Yeats. He translated so many volumes of his own Benjali poems personally that he can be regarded as an Anglo-Indian poet. Tagore resided at Shantiniketan and Ashram and founded a school at the former place that turned into Visva-Bharati University in 1918, the present-day holder of the Tagore copyright (which ran out on January 1, 2002). Mrinalini Devi Raichaudhuri and he wed, in an arranged marriage, Dec. 9, 1883, and they had five children: three daughters, Madhurilata, Renuka, and Mira, and two sons, Rathindranath and Samindranath. Tagore obtained honorary degrees from the universities of Calcutta (1913), Dacca (1936), Osmania (1938), and Oxford (1940). He died August 7, 1941, in Calcutta, and was cremated.
Born October 16, 1888, in New York, Eugene O'Neill is the 20th-century's best-known American dramatist. Educated at Princeton, he spent his early years working as a secretary in New York, as a gold-prospector in Honduras, as a seaman on trips to Buenos Aires, South Africa, and Southampton, and as a bit-player in his father's company. He wrote verse in these early years, but after spending six months in a sanatorium he turned to writing plays in 1913. He won four Pulitzer prizes for his plays Beyond the Horizon (1919), Anna Christie (1922), Strange Interlude (1928), and his semi-autobiographical drama on his own family, Long Day's Journey into Night (composed 1940-41, published 1956). He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1936. Others of his plays include The Emperor Jones (1921), The Hairy Ape (1922), All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924), Desire under the Elsm (1924), the trilogy Mourning becomes Electra (1931), Ah! Wilderness (1932), The Iceman Cometh (1946), and Moon for the Misbegotten (1947). He died November 27, 1953.
Gelb, Arthur and Barbara Gelb. O'Neill (New York Harper and Row, 1973; PS 3529 N5Z653 1973 Robarts Library)
Smith, Madeline. Eugene O'Neill: an annotated bibliography (New York: Garland, 1988; PS 3529 .N5 Z459 St. Michael's College Library)
Atkinson, Jennifer McCabe. Eugene O'Neill: a descriptive bibliography (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1974; Z 8644 .5 A74 Robarts Library)
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, July 21, 1899, the son of a doctor. He became a reporter in Kansas City after leaving school and volunteered on ambulance duty in Italy in World War I, where he was wounded and won the Croce de Guerra. He became a reporter in Toronto for The Star after the war and in 1921 moved to Paris among literary Americans such as Ezra Pound. Fewer than a hundred poems survive from his hand, but his first published book, entitled Three Stories and Ten Poems (Paris, 1923), gives them surprising prominence. His fame rests on his best work, short stories and novels, including In our Time (1923), The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952). He was married four times. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. On July 2, 1961, seriously ill, Hemingway shot himself to death.
Hanneman, Audre Ernest. Hemingway: a comprehensive bibliography (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967; Z/8396/.3/H45 Robarts Library)
Hemingway, Ernest. Complete Poems, rev. edn., ed. Nicholas Gerogiannis (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1992; PS 3515 E37A17 Robarts Library)
Larson, Kelli A. Ernest Hemingway : a reference guide, 1974-1989 (Boston, Mass.: G. K. Hall, 1990; Z 8396 .3 L37 1991 Robarts Library)
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway, a biography (New York: Harper & Row, 1985; PS 3515 E37 Z7418 1985 Robarts Library)