Hemingway, Ernest Miller
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, July 21, 1899, the son of a doctor. He became a reporter in Kansas City after leaving school and volunteered on ambulance duty in Italy in World War I, where he was wounded and won the Croce de Guerra. He became a reporter in Toronto for The Star after the war and in 1921 moved to Paris among literary Americans such as Ezra Pound. Fewer than a hundred poems survive from his hand, but his first published book, entitled Three Stories and Ten Poems (Paris, 1923), gives them surprising prominence. His fame rests on his best work, short stories and novels, including In our Time (1923), The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952). He was married four times. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. On July 2, 1961, seriously ill, Hemingway shot himself to death.
- Hanneman, Audre Ernest. Hemingway: a comprehensive bibliography (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967; Z/8396/.3/H45 Robarts Library)
- Hemingway, Ernest. Complete Poems, rev. edn., ed. Nicholas Gerogiannis (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1992; PS 3515 E37A17 Robarts Library)
- Larson, Kelli A. Ernest Hemingway : a reference guide, 1974-1989 (Boston, Mass.: G. K. Hall, 1990; Z 8396 .3 L37 1991 Robarts Library)
- Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway, a biography (New York: Harper & Row, 1985; PS 3515 E37 Z7418 1985 Robarts Library)