Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) was the illegitimate son of a Polish mother whose name was Kostrowitzky. After desultory studies in Paris, he led a rather nomadic life until the First Great War in which he enlisted in 1914. He was wounded in 1916 and died in the influenza epidemic of 1918. Apollinaire has many moods and many styles. He can be simple and tender, coarse and vulgar, gay, ribald, intense. He is an experimenter in form and is known especially for his calligrams where the arrangement of the words on the page actually forms a design or picture. Apollinaire is very human and for that reason has a universal appeal.

  • "Guillaume Apollinaire." Representative French Poetry. Ed. Victor E. Graham. 2nd edn. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965. 106-09.
  • Apollinaire, Guillaume. Alcools: Poèmes 1898-1913. Librairie Gallimard, 1920. Internet Archive
  • Heaney, Frances Gale. Theodore Goodridge Roberts. University of New Brunswick, 1960.
  • Northland Lyrics: William Carman Roberts, Theodore Roberts & Elizabeth Roberts Macdonald. Ed. Charles G.D. Roberts. Boston: Small, Maynard, 1899.
  • Roberts, Theodore Goodridge. The Leather Bottle. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1934. Internet Archive.
  • --.The Lost Shipmate. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1926.
  • --.Seven Poems. Privately printed, 1925.
  • --.That Far River: Selected Poems of Theodore Goodridge Roberts. Ed. Martin Ware. London, Ontario: Canadian Poetry Press, 1998.
  • Anderson, Robert T. Canadian Born and Other Western Verse. Edmonton: Esdale Press, 1913. Internet Archive
  • --. The Old Timer and Other Poems. Edmonton: Edmonton Printing and Publishing, 1909. Internet Archive
  • --. Troopers in France. Coles Printing Co., 1932
Index to poems
  • Haig, Catriona. "Hodgson, William Noel (1893–1916)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004.
  • Medomsley, J. William Noel Hodgson: the Gentle Poet. 1989.

After training in Egypt, Tom Skeyhill fought as a regimental signaller of the second (Victorian) Infantry Brigade of the Australian armed forces at Gallipoli from April 25, 1915, to May 8, when a shell explosion blinded him during an advance at Cape Helles. He was hospitalized at Al-Hayat, Helouin, Egypt, and then at the Base Hospital in Melbourne.


Born on January 4, 1835, in Coulston, Surrey, Lyall received his education at Eton and Haileybury College. He joined the Indian civil service at Bulandshahr in the Doab in 1856 and served in many capacities until his retirement in 1887. After being honoured for fighting in the Mutiny in 1857-58, Lyall successively became commissioner of Nagpur, commissioner of West Berar, the governor-general's agent in Rajputana, and (from 1878 to 1881) foreign secretary to the Government of India. During this period he helped negotiate peace and a monarchy in Afghanistan, a solution that earned him more honours, the C.B. (1879) and K.C.B. (1881). His last position, as Lieutenant-governor of the North-west Provinces and Oudh, enabled him to introduce local self-government there. After returning to England, Lyall served on the India Council from 1888 to 1902, and then as a privy councillor under Edward VII. These services earned him a K.C.I.E (1887) and a G.C.I.E. (1896). Throughout his life Lyall enjoyed the life of a man of letters, historian, essayist, and poet. His literary achievements brought him advanced degrees, a D.C.L. from Oxford (1889) and an LL.D. from Cambridge (1891), a fellowship at King's College Cambridge (1893), and membership in the British Academy (1902), among other honours. He and Cora Cloete of Cape Town married in 1863 and had four children, both sons and daughters. He died of a heart attack on April 10, 1911, and is interred at Harbledown, near the Canterbury of Chaucer's General Prologue.

  • H., B. H. "Lyall, Sir Alfred Comyn." Dictionary of National Biography 1901-11. 492-94.
  • Lyall, Alfred Comyn. Asiatic studies, religious and social. 2nd edn. London: J. Murray, 1884. R.H L Robarts Library.
  • --. "VIII. From the close of the seventeenth century to the present time." History of India. Ed. A. V. Williams Jackson. London: Grolier society, ca. 1906-07. 9 vols. HIn J128hi Robarts Library.
  • --. The Life of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava. London: Murray, 1905. 2 vols. DA 17 .D9L82 1905 Robarts Library.
  • --. The Rise of the British Dominion in India. New York: Scribner, 1893. HIn L981r Robarts Library.
  • --. Studies in literature and history. London: John Murray, 1915. AC 8 .L93 1915 Robarts Library.
  • --. Tennyson. New York: Macmillan, 1902. PR 5581 .L8 1902 Victoria College Library.
  • --. Verses Written in India. London: K. Paul, Trench, 1889. PR 4894 .L7V4 Robarts Library.
  • --. Warren Hastings. London: Macmillan, 1889. DS 473 .L95 Robarts Library.

The Times obituary is as follows: "Lieutenant-Colonel Stanley de Vere Julius, who died last week at Millbank Military Hospital, at the age of 54, was educated at St. Laurence College, joined The Royal Sussex Regiment from Sandhurst i n 1896, and served throughout the Tirah campaign. He passed through the Staff College, Quetta, and a pamphlet of his, "Notes on Striking Natives," attracted the favourable notice of Lord Kitchener. D uring hostilities in Mesopotamia he served on General Townshend's staff, and, after the fall of Kut, was a prisoner of war at Yazgad, Affiam Kara Hissar, and Broussa. In 1919 he was appointed to th e British Military Mission to Russia as G.S.O.1, and served with General Denikin's forces. He was wont to say that fate had decreed him an expert on retreats. Later, service with his regiment took h im to Chanak. There, an enthusiast in the sport of pig sticking in India, he was the first to enjoy it on the plains of Troy, where, with the still hostile Turks acting as beaters, he duly stuck hi s pig. Command of his battalion at Singapore and Rawal Pindi was followed by retirement in 1927. Many years of service in India, and subsequently in the Malay States, gave Julius the opportunity, which he eagerly took, to study the Eastern mind, of which, both by personal and sympathetic contac t with Orientals and by wide reading in their literature and philosophies, he attained a remarkable understanding. While a prisoner of war he discovered a talent for poetry in which, supported by muc h past study of the great poets, he found comfort and a mental outlet. A selection of his verse from among much that, written on minute pieces of paper and secreted in the buttons of his uniform he wa s able to bring home with him, was published in 1929. He leaves a widow, Maude, daughter of the late Mr. H. H. Lake, M.Inst.C.E., chief Engineer to the State of Gwalior, C.I., and one daughter." I am grateful to his second cousin, Edward Fenn, living in New Zealand (September 11, 2005), for information that Julius endorsed a copy of his Verse (1924) to his sister Muriel, and that he died in 1930.

  • Obituary. The Times. London, September 18, 1930. 17.

Sir Thomas Wyatt was born at Allington Castle, Kent, in 1503, the son of Henry Wyatt and Anne Skinner. He was educated at St. John's College Cambridge, become a diplomat in the service of Henry VIII about 1526 and travelled to Italy first in 1527. After a brief imprisonment for his affair with Anne Boleyn in 1536, the king's second wife who was executed for treason, Wyatt went to Spain as English ambassador to Charles V from 1537 to 1539. In 1541, after the fall of Thomas Cromwell, Wyatt was arrested again and charged with treason but his release followed shortly. He died October 11, 1542, and was buried at Sherborne. Having separated from his wife Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Lord Cobham, Wyatt was survived by his mistress Elizabeth Darrell and their son Francis. The best modern editions of Wyatt's poems are Sir Thomas Wyatt: The Complete Poems, ed. R. A. Rebholz (Penguin, 1978), Richard C. Harrier's The Canon of Sir Thomas Wyatt's Poetry (a diplomatic transcription of the Egerton MS poems, for which see below), and the Collected Poems, edited by Kenneth Muir and Patricia Thomson (London: Routledge, 1969), who give especially full notes.


  • Burrow, Colin. "Wyatt, Sir Thomas (c.1503–1542)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. May 2011.
  • Muir, Kenneth Muir. Life and Letters of Sir Thomas Wyatt. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1963.
  • Thomson, Patricia. Sir Thomas Wyatt and his Background. London: Routledge, 1964.

Thirteen original sources exist for Wyatt's poems.

  1. Harington MS, Arundel Castle: see The Arundel Harington Manuscript of Tudor Poetry, 2 vols. (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1960).
  2. Blage MS, Trinity College, Dublin
  3. Parker MS 168, Corpus Christi College Cambridge
  4. Devonshire Ms 17492, British Library
  5. Egerton MS 2711, British Library: see Richard Harrier, The Canon of Sir Thomas Wyatt's Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975), Part II, the best edition of the best version.
  6. Harleian MS 78, British Library
  7. Additional MS 36529, British Library (Park-Hill MS)
  8. Royal MS 17.A.xxii, British Library
  9. University MS Ff.5.14, Cambridge University Library
  10. Certayne psalmes chosen out of the psalter of Dauid, called thee. vii. penytentiall psalmes, drawen into englyshe meter by sir T. Wyat, ed. J. Harrington (London, 1549). STC 2726.
  11. A Boke of Balettes, extant in one copy only, a fragment of two leaves. STC 26053.5.
  12. Songes and sonettes, written by Henry Haward late earle of Surrey, and other (June 5, 1557). STC 13860. See Tottell's Miscellany (1557-1587), ed. H. E. Rollins, 2 vols., 2nd edn. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965).
  13. The courte of Venus, a fragment of an edition ca. 1563. STC 24650.5. See The Court of Venus, ed. R. A. Fraser (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1955).

Wyatt's poems were circulated in manuscript during his lifetime. The most important early MS is the Egerton. Fifteen years after Wyatt's death, Richard Tottel included 97 poems attributed to Wyatt in a collection of Surrey's poems. Tottel supplied Wyatt's poems with titles of his own and, in his desire to appeal to contemporary taste, frequently departed from the manuscript copy of his earlier authors, removing archaisms and smoothing out the rhythm. Wyatt also published Petrarch's De tranquillitate animi in English translation: see Tho, wyatis translatyon of Plutarckes boke, of the quyete of mynde in 1528 (STC 20058.5) and Plutarch's Quyete of Mynde translated by Thomas Wyat (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931). Many of Wyatt's and Surrey's sonnets are translations or adaptations of Petrarch's Sonnetti in Vita di Madonna Laura and Sonnetti in Morte di Madonna Laura. Petrarch's poems are numbered as in modern standard editions with Petrarch's original numbering in brackets. The difference in numbering is due to the inclusion in Petrarch's sonnet cycle of a number of poems in other forms, including canzoni, madrigali, and ballate. The Italian texts are from Le Rime di Francesco Petrarca, ed. Giovanni Mestica (Firenze: G. Barbèra, 1896; PQ 4476 E96 ROBA). Modernization has not been applied to those passages where it might have grossly obscured the rhythm of the original.