• Deese, Helen R. " Very, Jones." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies, 2000.
  • Kizuk, R. Alex. "Robert (Winkworth) Norwood." Canadian Writers, 1890-1920. Ed. William H. New. Detroit: Gale, 1990.
  • Norwood, Robert. Bill Boram. New York: Doran, 1921. Internet Archive
  • --. Driftwood., 1898.
  • --. His Lady of the Sonnets. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1915. Internet Archive
  • --. Issa. New York: Scribners, 1931. D-10 03396 Rare Books
  • --. The Modernists. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1917. Internet Archive
  • --. Mother and Son. New York: Doran, 1925. H&SS A-3611 UTL at Downsview
  • --. The Piper and the Reed. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1917. Internet Archive
  • Bailey, Alfred G. "Odell, Jonathan." Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • Sargent, Winthrop, ed. The Loyal Verses of Joseph Stansbury and Doctor Jonathan Odell. Albany: J. Munsell, 1860. Internet Archive
  • Guruswamy, Rosemay Fithian. The Poems of Edward Taylor: a reference guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
  • Hammond, Jeffrey A. American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Taylor, Edward. The Poetical Works of Edward Taylor. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.
  • --. Edward Taylor's Gods determinations and Prepatory Meditations: a critical edition. Kent: Kent State University Press, 2003.
  • --. The Poems of Edward Taylor. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
  • --. Early New England Meditative Poetry: Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor. New York: Paulist Press, 1988.
  • Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 1-2: To 1940. American Council of Learned Societies, 1944-1958.

Born June 3, 1771, Sydney Smith was educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford, where he took a B.A. in 1792 and an M.A. in 1796. He was ordained as an Anglican priest in 1796 and became a curate in Nether Avon, near Amesbury. Moving to Edinburgh as a tutor, Smith published his first book of sermons and married Catharine Amelia Pybus. During this period he co-founded and edited the Edinburgh Review, to which he contributed much of his life. By 1803 the Smiths had gone to London, where he achieved a reputation as an outstandingly witty preacher at such places as Berkeley Chapel, Mayfair, the Foundling Hospital, and the Fitzroy Chapel. He lectured on moral philosophy at the Royal Institution from 1804 to 1806 and wrote his best-known work, Peter Plymley's Letters, on legalizing Roman Catholic worship. He served as priest at and lived near Foston-le-Clay, Yorkshire, in 1809, moved to Bristol to become a prebend in its cathedral in 1828, and three years later returned to London to take up a canonry at St Paul’s Cathedral. Besides his sermons and philosophic lectures, Smith's fame rests on his letters, and among them we find his occasional verse. He died at Green Street, London, on February 22, 1845, and interred at Kensal Green.

  • Schlenther, Boyd Stanley. "Whitefield, George (1714–1770)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004.

Henry Francis Lyte was born on June 1, 1793, at Ednam, Scotland, and educated at Portora Royal School, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh (the alma mater of Oscar Wilde and Samuel Beckett, in Northern Ireland) and Trinity College, Dublin, where he won the Chancellor's Prize for English verse three years in a row, and from which he graduated in 1814. After being ordained in the Church of England, Lyte became a minister in Marazion, Cornwall, in 1817. He and Anne Maxwell wed on Jan. 21, 1818, and they set up house in Lymington. He published Tales in Verse in 1826, the first of his three volumes of poetry. By 1823 Lyte had become curate at All Saints Church in Lower Brixham, Devonshire. Dublin in 1830, and Oxford in 1834, granted him Master's degrees, but the one memorable "spirit-moving lay" that Lyte confessed, in his poem "Declining Days," he so longed to write in 1839 finally came to him in the days preceding his last sermon in late summer 1847. "Abide with Me" is a hymn universally beloved for memorial services and is sung annually by tens of thousands at the Football Association Cup Final at Wembley Stadium before the kick-off (beginning in 1927, at the suggestion of King George V). Lyte died on Nov. 20, 1847, at Nice, France, and is interred in the English Cemetery there. Three sons and a daughter survived him. One hundred years later, a tablet bearing his name, dates, and the first line of his greatest poem was placed in Westminister Abbey.


  • Lyte, Henry Francis. Poems, Chiefly Religious. London, 1833.
  • --. Miscellaneous Poems. London, 1868.
  • --. The poetical works of the Rev. H.F. Lyte, M.A.. Ed. John Appleyard. London: E. Stock, 1907. PR 4897 L6 A17 1907 Victoria College (Emmanuel)
  • --. The Spirit of the Psalms. London, 1834.
  • --. Tales in Verse illustrative of the several petitions of the Lord's Prayer. London, 1826.
  • Skinner, Basil Garnet. Henry Francis Lyte: Brixham's poet and priest. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1974. BV 330 L9S55 Robarts Library

Robert Stephen Hawker was born on Dec. 3, 1803, to Jacob Stephen Hawker and Jane Elizabeth Drewitt. He was educated at Liskeard and Cheltenham Grammar Schools, and Pembroke College and Magdalen College, Oxford, receiving his B.A. in 1828. Hawker brought out his first book of poems, Tendrils, in 1821, and won the Newdigate Prize at Oxford for a poem on Pompeii in 1827. After being ordained a priest in the Anglican Church in 1831, Hawker settled down in the vicarage at Morwenstow, Cornwall, in 1837, with his wife, Charlotte Eliza Rawleigh I'ans, whom he had married on Nov. 6, 1823. Other books of verse came out in 1832, 1840, 1843, and 1844, but only when Charles Dickens acknowledged his authorship of "The Song of the Western Men" on Nov. 20, 1852, in Household Words, did Hawker become well known as a poet. After Charlotte died on Feb. 2, 1863, Hawker published The Quest of the Sangraal (1864) and remarried, to Pauline Anne Kuczynski, on Dec. 21 that year. His Cornish Ballads was published in 1869. Hawkins converted to Roman Catholicism before his death at 9 Lockyer St., Plymouth, on August 15, 1875. He was survived by his wife and three daughters. The photograph of Robert Stephen Hawker, at 61, taken by Dr. Richard Budd at Barnstaple in 1864, appears in C. E. Byles' The Life and Letters of R. S. Hawker (1906), opp. p. 482. See Robert Stephen Hawker: His life and writings, the authoritative online resource, edited by Angela Williams.

  • Byles, C. E. The Life and Letters of R. S. Hawker (sometime Vicar of Morwenstow). London: J. Lane, the Bodley Head, 1906. PR 4759 .H9Z48 1906 Robarts Library
  • C., W. P. "Hawker, Robert Stephen." Dictionary of National Biography. IX. 1891. 202-03.
  • Hawker, Robert Stephen. Cornish Ballads & Other Poems. Intro. by C.E. Byles. London: J. Lane, 1908. PR 4759 H9C6 1908 Robarts Library
  • --. Cornish Ballads and Other Poems: a Facsimile Reproduction of the 1869 Edition. Intro. by Kay J. Walter and Terence Allan Hoagwood. Delmar, N.Y.: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1994. PR 4759 H9C6 1869a Robarts Library
  • --. Ecclesia: A Volume of Poems. Oxford: J.G. and J. Rivington, 1840. (Also 1846.) PR 4759 H9E3 Robarts Library
  • --. Echoes from Old Cornwall. London: Joseph Masters, 1846.
  • --. The Quest of the Sangraal: Chant the First. Exeter: Printed for the author, 1864. PR 4759 H9 Q8 Victoria College Library
  • --. Records of the Western Shore. Oxford: D. A. Talboys, 1832. Reprinted 1836.
  • --. Reeds Shaken with the Wind. London: James Burns, 1843 and 1844.
  • --. Selected Poems: Robert Stephen Hawker. Ed. Cecil Woolf. London: C. Woolf, 1975. PR 4759 H9A6 1975 Robarts Library
  • -- [Reuben]. Tendrils. Cheltenham: Hatchard, 1821.

Alexander Macgregor Rose was born August 17, 1846, in Tomantoul, Banffshire. He graduated from the University of Aberdeen in 1867 and became, in 1870, Master of the Free Church School in Gairloch, Rossshire. After returning to Aberdeen to study Divinity from 1871, he was ordained on Sept. 9, 1875, and became minister at the Free Church of Evie and Rendall, Orkney. Bankrupt, and in disgrace, Rose left Scotland, his wife, and his family on June 10, 1879, for New York. In America he became a journalist, notably at the San Diego Daily Bee and then on the San Franciso Examiner, the San Francisco Sunday Chronicle, and the Daily Call. By 1891 he had left California and was wandering northwards, at first to Toronto by 1895, and at last to Montreal by 1896, where he worked for the Gazette and the Montreal Herald. He died on May 10, 1898, at Notre Dame Hospital, evidently of a paralytic stroke, and was buried in the lot of the St. Andrews Society in Mount Royal Cemetery.

Although Rose had written poems for some years, he only achieved fame for occasional comic verse written in the last two years of his life and published in Montreal newspapers. "Hoch der Kaiser" became so popular in decades before World War I that his very authorship of the poem was forgotten. In Canada, his two squibs on Liberal and Conservative politics under Sir Wilfrid Laurier won Rose an honour granted, as far as is known, to no other poet. Rose wrote P. J. Anderson on Nov. 27, 1897:

I may tell you that after the publication of the latest ballad in the Witness, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, who is a very good fellow all round, wrote me a very pleasant letter, full of the most complementary expressions, and asked me to run up to Ottawa to see him. I did so, had an interview with him in his private room in the Government House, and dined with him and Lady Laurier. Afterwards he told me that when the Witness containing my verses reached Ottawa, Solicitor-General Fitzpatrick brought a copy to the meeting of the Privy Council that morning, and asked for a suspension of the rules while he read the verses aloud. `The first time,' said Sir Wilfrid, `so far as I know, that poetry was ever mixed up with affairs of State in the proceedings of Her Majesty's Canadian Privy Council.' (Poems, 29)

Rose's imitation of the French-Canadian colloquial English, what we might call "franglais," was no doubt inspired by the success of William Henry Drummond "habitant" poems.

  • Rose, Alexander MacGregor. Hoch der Kaiser: Myself und Gott. Illustrated by Jessie A. Walker. London: Abbey Press, 1900. PS 8485 O37H6 Robarts Library
  • --. Poems of A. MacGregor Rose (Gordon). Ed. Robert Dey. London: John Heywood, no date. British Library. PR 9199 .2 R66 A17 1900a Victoria College Rare Books
  • --. Sir Wilfrid's progress through England and France in the Jubilee year. Illustrated by J.C. Innes. Montreal: Sterling, 1897. F 5081 L38R6 Robarts Library