Civil Servant

  • MacInnes, Tom. Complete Poems. Toronto: Ryerson, 1923. Internet Archive. PR 9199.3 M3215 A17 Victoria College Canadiana
  • --. The Fool of Joy. Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild, and Stewart, 1918. Internet Archive.
  • --. High Low Along: A Didactic Poem. Vancouver: Canada Clark and Stuart, 1934. PR9199.3 .M3215 H5 1934 Victoria Canadiana
  • --. In Amber Lands: Poems. New York: Broadway, 1910. Internet Archive.
  • --. In the Old of my Age: A New Book of Rhymes. Toronto: Ryerson, 1947. PR9199.3 .M3215 I5 1947 Victoria
  • --. Lonesome Bar: A Romance of the Lost and Other Poems. Montreal: Desbarats, 1909. Internet Archive.
  • --. Rhymes of a Rounder. New York: Broadway, 1910. Internet Archive.
  • --. Roundabout Rhymes. Toronto: Ryerson, 1923. PR9199.3 .M323 R6 1923 Victoria Canadiana
    • Henry Kendall papers: State Library of New South Wales, and National Library of Australia.
    • Kendall, Thomas Henry. Leaves from Australian Forests. Melbourne: George Robertson, 1869.
    • --. Poems and Songs. Sydney: J. R. Clarke, 1862. Internet Archive.
    • --. Songs from the Mountains. Sydney: William Maddock, 1880. Google book.
    • -- The Poems of Henry Kendall. Ed. Bertram Stephens. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1920. Internet Archive. Sydney Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS).
    • Reed, T.T. "Kendall, Thomas Henry (1839-1882)." Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 5. Melbourne University Press, 1974. 13-14.
    • --. Henry Kendall: A Critical Appreciation. Adelaide: Rigby, 1960.

    We are grateful for access to AustLit in the preparation of these poems.

    Index to poems
    • Bagguley, Philip. "Wolfe, Humbert (1885–1940)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Oxford: OUP, 2011.
    • Thornton, R. K. R. "Wratislaw, Theodore William Graf (1871-1933)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004.
    Index to poems
    • Hadgraft, Cecil. "Stephens, James Brunton (1835–1902)." Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
    • Stephens, James Brunton. The Poetical Works of Brunton Stephens. Sydney: University of Sydney Library, 2001.
    • --. Convict Once: And Other Poems. Sydney: University of Sydney Library, 2003.
    • --. The poetical works of Brunton Stephens. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1902. PR 5473 .S746 A17 1902 Robarts Library
    Index to poems

    Born in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, on July 25, 1825, John Askham had almost no formal education. After labouring as a child in his father's shoe-making shop, Askham earned his living as a shoe-maker. He taught himself to read and write and published his verses in local newspapers and then as volumes, financed by subscriptions. These books included Sonnets on the Months and other Poems (1863), Descriptive Poems, Miscellaneous Pieces and Miscellaneous Sonnets (1866), Judith and other Poems, and a Centenary of Sonnets (1868), Poems and Sonnets (1875), and Sketches in Prose and Verse (1893). In 1871 Northampton elected Askham to the city's first school board, and Askham went on to hold small offices in local government. He and his first wife, Bonham, had three daughters. He married a second time to a woman named Cox. Paralyzed by illness, Askham died October 28, 1894. His grave lies in Wellingborough cemetery.

    • Askham, John. Sonnets on the Months: And other Poems, Descriptive, Domestic, and National. Northampton: Taylor and Son, 1863. British Library
    • Loughlin-Chow, M. Clare. "Askham, John (1825-1894)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004.
    • Sambrook, James. "Tickell, Thomas (1685–1740)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed. Ed. Lawrence Goldman. Jan. 2008.

    Born in Ottawa in 1862, educated at Smith's Falls, Ontario, and Stanstead, Quebec, Scott obtained a position at 17 years old as a clerk in the Indian Branch of the federal government and before his retirement in 1932 had risen to become deputy superintendent of the Department of Indian Affairs.  From 1893 to 1947 he published nine volumes of poetry:

    • The Magic House and Other Poems. Ottawa: J. Drurie, 1893. B-10 0402
    • Labor and the Angel. Boston: Copeland and Day, 1898. PS 8487 .C6L3
    • New World Lyrics and Ballads. Toronto: Morang, 1905. PS 8487 C6N4
    • Via Borealis. Toronto: W. Tyrrell, 1906. cap RBSC
    • Lundy's Lane and Other Poems. New York: G. H. Doran, 1916. B-11 6556
    • Beauty and Life. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1921. PS 8487 .C6B4
    • Poems. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1926. PS 8487 C6A17
    • The Green Cloister: Later Poems. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1935. PS 8487 C6G7
    • The Circle of Affection and Other Pieces in Prose and Verse. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1947. PS 8487 C6C5

    as well as two books of short stories and a play. As the literary executor of Archibald Lampman, Scott edited, published and popularized his poetry. The two men had jointly published essays in a Toronto Globe column in 1892-93. Scott was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1899, and he acted as its president in 1921. The University of Toronto and Queens' University gave him honorary degrees in 1922 and 1939. He married Belle Warner Botsford in 1894 and they had one daughter, who died in 1907. After his wife's death in 1929, he remarried Elise Aylen in 1931. His death came at 85 in 1947. See also

    • Campbell, Wilfred. At the Mermaid Inn, conducted by A. Lampman, W. W. Campbell, Duncan C. Scott. Being selections from essays on life and literature which appeared in the Toronto Globe, 1892-1893. Ed. Arthur S. Bourinot. Ottawa, 1958. PS 8369 .C3
    • The Poet and the Critic: A Literary Correspondence between D. C. Scott and E. K. Brown. Ed. Robert Law McDougall. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1983. PS 8487 .C6Z542
    • Some Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott, Archibald Lampman and Others. Ottawa: Arthur S. Bourinot, 1959. PS 8349 .B6
    • More Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott. Ottawa: Arthur S. Bourinot, 1960. D-10 448

    While Scott portrays the native cultures of Canada with some sympathy in his poetry, the legacy of his work in the Department of Indian Affairs is not positive. He, along with his colleagues and the politicians of the day, defended the residential school system, the suppression of native cultural practices, and the assimilation of native people into the Canadian population as a whole, though he himself had no power to vote on issues pertaining to Indian Affairs in parliament. It is reasonably clear that he thought he was acting in the best interests of the native Canadians, helping them escape lives of poverty, though history has shown that the decisions had in many cases a strong negative impact. See E. Brian Titley’s study A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada (1986) for an in-depth examination of these issues.


    Thomas Pringle was born January 5, 1789, in Blaiklaw, Roxburghshire, and educated at Kelso and afterwards, in 1805, at Edinburgh University. He became clerk, Commissioner of the Public Records of Scotland, and co-editor, Edinburgh Monthly Magazine and Constable's Magazine, in 1817. He married Margaret Brown on July 19 in that year and published his first book of poems, The Autumnal Excursion, in 1819. When he was 30 years old, they led a party including his brother, father, and stepmother, and her sister, to South Africa. They departed on February 18, 1820, and arrived on June 29 at Eildon Kloof, close to present Glen Lynden district. After the settlement had laid down good roots, he went to Cape Town in September 1822 to become Government Librarian. By 1824 he had become co-editor of the South African Commercial Advertiser and had opened a school. Two years later he left South Africa for London, where he did literary work and served as Secretary to the Anti-Slavery Society until his death on December 5, 1834. He is buried in Bunhill Fields, London. In those final years Pringle saw a half dozen of his poems published in George Thompson's Travels and Adventures (1827). One reader was Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who wrote Pringle that he believed his poem, "Afar in the Desert," was one of the "two or three most perfect lyric Poems" in English. Pringle brought out a second book of poems, Ephemerides, in 1828, and at last a major book, African Sketches (1834), which brought together his (often revised) poems and a narrative of his residence in South Africa.

    • African Poems of Thomas Pringle, ed. Ernest Pereira and Michael Chapman (Durban: University of Natal Press, 1989). PR 5190 P3A57 1989 Robarts Library
    • Doyle, John Robert. Thomas Pringle (New York: Twayne, 1972). PR 5190 P3Z6 Robarts Library
    • Marchand, Marion. Index to the Poems of Thomas Pringle 1789-1834 (School of Librarianship, University of Witwatersrand, 1960).
    • Meiring, Jane. Thomas Pringle: His Life and Times. Cape Town: A. A. Balkema, 1968. DT 844 .2 P7M3 Robarts Library
    • Pringle, Thomas. African Sketches (London: Edward Moxon, 1834). 010097.e.63 British Library
    • --. The Autumnal Excursion, or, Sketches in Teviotdale; with Other Poems (Edinburgh: Constable, 1819).
    • --. Ephemerides, or, Occasional poems, written in Scotland and South Africa (London: Smith, Elder, 1828). Victoria University Rare Books no. 105
    • --. Glen-Lynden: A Tale of Teviotdale (London: Smith, Elder, 1828).
    • -- and Robert Story. The Institute: A Heroic Poem in Four Cantos (Edinburgh: W. McWilliam, 1811).
    • Thomas Pringle: His Life, Times, and Poems, ed. William Hay (Cape Town: J. C. Juta, 1912). 11611.l.16 British Library