Thomas Hardy, born in 1840 near Dorchester, took up architectural work, both with a local firm and in London, before turning to writing and publishing novels, beginning with Desperate Remedies in 1871 and ending in Jude the Obscure in 1895. Disgruntled after years of controversy dogged his novels, Hardy turned to poetry, his preferred form, quite late, with Wessex Poems in 1898. Seven more volumes of poetry followed: Poems of the Past and Present (1902), Time's Laughingstocks (1909), Satires of Circumstance (1914), Moments of Vision (1917), Late Lyrics and Earlier (1922), Human Shows (1925), and Winter Words (1928). Married to Emma Gifford from 1874 to her death in 1912, Hardy wrote some of his most moving lyrics about her in the year of her death. He remarried Florence Dugdale in 1914. His Collected Poems was published two years after his death (1930). See also
- The Collected Letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978-88; PR 4753 .A4 1978 Robarts Library).
- Timothy Hands. A Hardy Chronology (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992). PR 4753 H26 1992 Robarts Library
- Michael Millgate. Thomas Hardy, a Biography, 7 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985; PR 4753 .M54 1982 Trinity College Library).