The Shipman's Tale in the Hengwrt Manuscript of the Canterbury Tales

Original Text: 
Nat. Lib. Wales Peniarth 392. From Geoffrey Chaucer. The Canterbury Tales: A Facsimile and Transcription of the Hengwrt Manuscript, with Variants from the Ellesmere Manuscript, ed. Paul G. Ruggiers, introduction by Donald C. Baker, A. I. Doyle, and M. B. Parkes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979. PR 1866 .R8 1979 Robarts Library
{{Folio 204r}}
¶Here bigynneth the Shipmannes tale
2 That riche was / for which men helde hym wys
3 A wyf he hadde / of excellent beautee
4 And compaignable / and reuelous was she
5 Which is a thyng/ that cau{s}eth moore di{s}pence
6 Than worth / is al the cheere and reuerence
7 That men hem doon / at fe{s}tes and at daunces
8 Swiche salutacions / and contenances
9 Pa{ss}en / as dooth a shadwe vp on the wal
10 But wo is hym / that payen moot for al
11 The sely hou{s}bonde / algate he moot paye
12 He moot vs clothe / and he moot vs arraye
13 Al for his owene wor{s}hip / richely
14 In which array / we dauncen iolily
15 And if |þt| he noght may / |per|auenture
16 Or ellis / li{s}t no swich di{s}pen{s}e endure
17 But thynketh / it is wa{s}ted and ylo{s}t/
18 Thanne moot another / payen for oure co{s}t/
19 Or lene vs gold / and that is |per|ilous
20 This noble Marchant/ heeld a worthy hous
21 ffor which / he hadde alday / {s}o greet repair
22 ffor his large{ss}e / and for his wyf was fair
23 That wonder is / but herkneth to my tale
24 Amonges alle hi{s}e ge{s}tes / grete and smale
25 ¶Ther was a Monk/ a fair man and a bold
26 I trowe / a thritty wynter / he was old
27 That euere in oon / was drawyng/ to that place
28 This yonge Monk/ that was {s}o fair of face
29 Aqueynted was so / with the goode man
30 Sith that/ hir fir{s}te knewliche bigan
31 That in his hous / as famulier was he
32 As it is po{ss}ible / any freend to be
33 And for as muchel / as this goode man
34 And eek this Monk / of which |þt| I bigan
35 Were bothe two yborn / in o village
36 The Monk/ hym claymeth / as for co{s}ynage
37{{Folio 204v}}
38 And he agayn / he seith nat ones nay
39 But was as {`,}glad ther of / as fowel of day
40 ffor to his herte / it was a gret ple{s}ance
41 Thus been they knyt/ with eterne alliance
42 And ech of hem / gan oother/ for ta{ss}ure
43 Of bretherhede / whil |þt| hir lyf may dure
44 ¶ffree was daun |Iohan| / and manly of di{s}pence
45 As in that hous / and ful of diligence
46 To doon ple{s}ance / and al{s}o greet co{s}tage
47 He nat forgat/ to yeue the lee{s}te page
48 In al that hous / but after hir degree
49 He yaf the lord / and sith al his meynee
50 Whan |þt| he cam / {s}om manere hone{s}te thyng/
51 ffor which / they were as glad of his comyng/
52 As fowel is fayn / whan |þt| the sonne vp ri{s}eth
53 Namoore of this as now / for it suffi{s}eth
54 ¶But {s}o bifel / this Marchant/ on a day
55 Shoop hym / to make redy his array
56 Toward the town of Brugges / for to fare
57 To byen there / a porcion of ware
58 ffor which he hath / to Parys sent anon
59 A me{ss}ager / and preyed hath daun |Iohan|
60 That he sholde come / to Seint Denys and pleye
61 With hym / and with his wyf/ a day or tweye
62 Er he to Brugges wente / in alle wi{s}e
63 ¶This noble Monk/ of which I yow deuy{s}e
64 Hath of his Abbot/ as hym li{s}t licence
65 By cau{s}e he was a man / of heigh prudence
66 And eek an Officer / out for to ryde
67 To {s}een hir granges / and hir bernes wyde
68 And vn to Seint Denys / he comth anon
69 Who was {s}o welcome / as my lord Daun |Iohan|
70 Oure deere co{s}yn / ful of curtei{s}ye
71 With hym broghte he / a Iubbe of Malue{s}ye
72 And eek another/ ful of fyn vernage
73 And volatil / as ay was his v{s}age
74 And thus I lete hem / ete and drynke and pleye
75 This Marchant/ and this Monk / a day or tweye
76 ¶The thridde day / this Marchant vp ari{s}eth
77 And on his nedes / sadly hym auy{s}eth
{{Folio 205r}}
78 And vp / in to his Countour hous goth he
79 To rekene with hym self / wel may be
80 Of thilke yeer / how |þt| it with hym {s}tood
81 And how |þt| he / de{s}pended hadde his good
82 And if that he / encre{ss}ed were or noon
83 Hi{s}e bokes / and his bagges / many oon
84 He leyth biforn hym / on his Countyng bord
85 fful riche was his tre{s}or / and his hord
86 ffor which ful fa{s}te / his Countour dore he shette
87 And eek he nolde / |þt| no man sholde hym lette
88 Of his acountes / for the mene tyme
89 And thus he sit / til it was pa{ss}ed |pri|me
90 ¶Daun |Iohan| was ri{s}en / in the morwe al{s}o
91 And in the gardyns / walketh to and fro
92 And hath his thynges seyd / ful curtei{s}ly
93 ¶This goode wyf / cam walkyng |pri|uely
94 In to the gardyn / ther he walketh softe
95 And hym salueth / as she hath doon ofte
96 A mayde child / cam in hir compaignye
97 Which as hir li{s}t/ she may gouerne and gye
98 ffor yet/ vnder the yerde was the mayde
99 ¶O deere co{s}yn myn / Daun |Iohan| she sayde
100 What eyleth yow / so rathe for to ry{s}e
101 ¶Nece quod he / it oghte ynow suffi{s}e
102 ffyue houres / for to slepe / vp on a nyght/
103 But it were / for an old apalled wight/
104 As been thi{s}e wedded men / |þt| lye and dare
105 As in a forme / sit a wery hare
106 Were al for{s}traught/ |with| houndes grete |&| smale
107 But deere Nece / why be ye so pale
108 I trowe |cer|tes / that oure goode man
109 Hath yow laboured / sith the nyght bigan
110 That yow were nede / to re{s}ten ha{s}tily
111 And with that word / he lough ful myrily
112 And of his owene thoght/ he weex al reed
113 ¶This faire wyf / gan for to shake hir heed
114 And seyde thus / ye god woot al quod she
115 Nay co{s}yn myn / it stant nat {s}o with me
116 ffor by that god / that yaf me soule and lyf
117 In al the Reawme of ffrance / is ther no wyf
{{Folio 205v}}
118 That la{ss}e lu{s}t hath / to that sory pley
119 ffor I may synge / allas and weilawey
120 That I was born / but to no wight/ quod she
121 Dar I nat telle / how |þt| it stant with me
122 Wher fore I thynke / out of this land to wende
123 Or ellis / of my self / to make an ende
124 So ful am I / of drede/ and eek of care
125 ¶This Monk bigan / vp on this wyf to stare
126 And seyde / allas / my Nece god forbede
127 That ye / for any sorwe / or any drede
128 ffordo your self / but telleth me you|re| grief
129 |per|auenture / I may in youre me{s}chief/
130 Con{s}eille / or helpe / and therfore telleth me
131 Al youre anoy / for it shal been secree
132 ffor on my Porthors / I make an oth
133 That ne|uer|e in my lif / for lief / or loth
134 Ne shal I / of no con{s}eil / yow biwreye
135 ¶The same agayn to yow / quod she I seye
136 By god / and by this Porthors / I swere
137 Thogh men me wolde / al in to peces tere
138 Ne shal I ne|uer|e / for to gon to helle
139 Biwreye a word / of thyng |þt| ye me telle
140 Nat for no co{s}ynage / ne alliance
141 But verraily / for loue and affiance
142 Thus been they sworn / and her vp on they ke{s}te
143 And ech of hem / tolde oother what hem le{s}te
144 ¶Co{s}yn quod she / if |þt| I hadde a space
145 As I haue noon / and namely in this place
146 Thanne wolde I telle / a legende of my lyf
147 What I haue suffred / sith I was a wyf
148 With myn hou{s}bonde / al be he youre co{s}yn
149 ¶Nay quod this Monk/ by god and Seint Martin
150 He is namore / co{s}yn vn to me
151 Than is this leef/ |þt| hangeth on the tree
152 I clepe hym so / by Seint Denys of ffrance
153 To han / the moore cau{s}e of aqueyntance
154 Of yow / which I haue loued specially
155 Abouen alle wommen / sikerly
156 This swere I yow / on my |pro|fe{ss}io|un|
157 Telleth youre grief / le{s}t |þt| he come adoun
{{Folio 206r}}
158 And ha{s}teth yow / and goth awey anon
159 ¶My deere loue quod she / o my daun |Iohan|
160 fful lief were me / this con{s}eil for to hyde
161 But out it moot/ I may namoore abyde
162 ¶Myn hou{s}bonde is to me / the wor{s}te man
163 That euere was / sith |þt| the world bigan
164 But sith I am a wyf / it sit nat me
165 To tellen no wight/ of oure |pri|uetee
166 Neither abedde / ne in noon oother place
167 God shilde / I sholde it tellen for his |gra|ce
168 A wyf ne shal nat seyn / of hir hou{s}bonde
169 But al honour / as I kan vnder{s}tonde
170 Saue vn to yow / thus muche I tellen shal
171 As help me god / he is noght worth at al
172 In on degree / the value of a flye
173 But yet/ me greueth moo{s}t his nygardye
174 And wel ye woot/ |þt| wommen naturelly
A womman wolld haue
her hu{s}band, to be
hardye, wy{s}e Ryche,
free, buxom / that
is to {s}aye gentell
and to be fre{s}he
in bed / the{s}e /
{s}yxe things a
woman dothe
de{s}yre as Mr.
Chaucer dothe wryte
175 De{s}iren thynges .vj. as wel as I
176 They wolde / |þt| hir hou{s}bondes sholde be
177 ¶Hardy and wi{s}e / and riche / and ther to free
178 And buxom vn to his wyf / and fre{ss}h abedde
179 But by that ilke lord / that for vs bledde
180 ffor his honour / my self for to arraye
181 A sonday next/ I moot nedes paye
182 An hundred frankes / or ellis am I lorn
183 Yet were me le|uer|e / |þt| I were Vnborn
184 Than me were doon / a sclaundre / or vileynye
185 And if myn hou{s}bonde eek / myghte it e{s}pye
186 I nere but lo{s}t/ and ther fore I yow preye
187 Lene me this s|om|me / or ellis moot I deye
188 Daun |Iohan| I seye / lene me thi{s}e hundred frankes
189 Pardee / I wol noght/ faile yow my thankes
190 If |þt| yow li{s}t/ to doon / that I yow praye
191 ffor at a |cer|teyn day / I wol yow paye
192 And doon to yow / what ple{s}ance and seruy{s}e
193 That I may doon / right as yow li{s}t deuy{s}e
194 And but {.}I{.} do / god take on me vengeance
195 As foul / as e|uer|e hadde Genelo|un| of ffrance
196 ¶This gentil Monk/ an{s}werde in this manere
197 Now trewely / myn owene lady deere
198 I haue quod he / on yow so gret a routhe
199 That I yow swere / and plighte yow my trouthe
{{Folio 206v}}
200 That whan youre hou{s}bonde / is to fflandres fare
201 I wol deliuere yow / out of this care
202 ffor I wol brynge yow / an hundred frankes
203 And with that word / he caughte hi|re| by the flankes
204 And hi|re| embraceth harde / and ki{s}te hi|re| ofte
205 Goth now youre wey quod he / al {s}tille and softe
206 And lat vs dyne / as {s}oone / as |þt| ye may
207 ffor by my chilyndre / it is Pryme of day
208 Goth now / and beth as trewe as I shal be
209 ¶Now ellis / god forbede sire quod she
210 And forth she goth / as iolif as a pye
211 And bad the Cokes / |þt| they sholde hem hye
212 So |þt| men myghte dyne / and that anon
213 Vp to hir hou{s}bonde / is his wyf ygon
214 And knokketh at his Countour/ boldely
qi la.
215 ¶Who {^}{{ys}} ther quod he / Peter it am I
216 Quod she / what sire / how longe wol ye fa{s}te
217 How longe tyme / wol ye rekene and ca{s}te
218 Youre sommes / and youre bokes / and youre thynges
219 The deuel haue part/ on alle swiche rekenynges
220 Ye haue ynogh pardee / of goddes sonde
221 Com doun to day / and lat youre bagges {s}tonde
222 Ne be ye nat a{s}hamed / that daun |Iohan|
223 Shal fa{s}tynge / al this day elenge gon
224 What lat vs heere a ma{ss}e / and go we dyne
225 ¶Wyf quod this man / litel kan{s}tow deuyne
226 The curious bi{s}yne{ss}e / that we haue
227 ffor of vs chapmen / al{s}o god me {s}aue
228 And by that lord / that clepid is Seint Yue
229 Scar{s}ly amonges .xij. x. shul thryue
230 Continuelly / la{s}tyng vn to oure age
231 We may wel make cheere / and good vi{s}age
232 And dryue forth the world / as it may be
233 And kepen oure e{s}tat/ in pryuetee
234 Til we be dede / or ellis that we pleye
235 A pilgrymage / or goon out of the weye
236 And ther fore / haue I gret nece{ss}itee
237 Vp on this queynte world / tauy{s}e me
238 ffor euere mo / we mote {s}tonde in drede
239 Of hap and ffortune / in oure chapmanhede
{{Folio 207r}}
240 ¶To fflandres wol I go / tomorwe at day
241 And come agayn / as {s}oone as e|uer|e I may
242 ffor which my deere wyf / I thee bi{s}eke
243 As be to euery wight/ buxom and meke
244 And for to kepe oure good / be curious
245 And hone{s}tly / gouerne wel oure hous
246 Thow ha{s}t ynow / in euery mane|re| wi{s}e
247 That to a thrifty hou{s}hold / may suffi{s}e
248 Thee lakketh noon array / ne no vitaille
249 Of siluer in thy purs / shaltow nat faille
250 And with that word / his Countour dore he shette
251 And doun he goth / no lenger wolde he lette
252 But ha{s}tily / a ma{ss}e was ther seyd
253 And spedily / the tables were yleyd
254 And to the dyner / fa{s}te they hem spedde
255 And richely this Monk/ the chapman fedde
256 ¶At after dyner / daun |Iohan| sobrely
257 This chapman took a part/ and |pri|uely
258 He seyde hym thus / co{s}yn it standeth so
259 That wel I se / to Brugges wol ye go
260 God and Seint Au{s}tyn / spede yow and gyde
261 I pray yow co{s}yn / wy{s}ly |þt| ye ryde
262 Gouerneth yow al{s}o / of youre diete
263 Atemprely / and namely / in this hete
264 Bitwix vs two / nedeth no strange fare
265 ffarewel co{s}yn / god shilde yow fro care
266 And if |þt| any thyng/ by day or nyght
267 If it lye in my power/ and my myght/
268 That ye me wol comande / in any wi{s}e
269 It shal be doon / right as ye wol deuy{s}e
270 ¶O thyng er |þt| ye goon / if it may be
271 I wold {`,}preye yow / for to lene me
272 An hundred frankes / for a wyke or tweye
273 ffor |cer|teyn be{s}tes / |þt| I mo{s}te beye
274 To store with a place / that is oures
275 God help me so / I wolde it were youres
276 I shal nat faille / {s}eurely of my day
277 Nat for a thou{s}and frankes / a myle way
278 But lat this thyng be secree / I yow preye
279 ffor yet to nyght/ thi{s}e be{s}tes moot I beye
{{Folio 207v}}
280 And fare now wel / myn owene co{s}yn deere
281 Grant |mer|cy / of youre co{s}t/ and of youre cheere
282 ¶This noble Marchant/ gentilly anon
283 An{s}werde and seyde / o co{s}yn myn daun |Iohan|
284 Now sikerly / this is a smal reque{s}te
285 My gold is youres / whan |þt| it yow le{s}te
286 And nat oonly my gold / but my chaffare
287 Tak what yow li{s}t/ god shilde |þt| ye spare
288 But o thyng is / ye knowe it wel ynow
289 Of Chapmen / that hir moneye is hir plow
290 We may creance / whil we han a name
291 But goldlees for to been / it is no game
292 Pay it agayn / whan it lyth in youre e{s}e
293 After my myght/ ful fayn wol I yow ple{s}e
294 ¶Thi{s}e hundred frankes / he fette forth anon
295 And |pri|uely / he took hem to daun |Iohan|
296 No wight in al this world / wi{s}te of this lone
297 Sauyng/ this Marchant/ and daun |Iohan| allone
298 They drynke / and speke / and rome a while |&| pleye
299 Til that daun |Iohan| / rideth to his Abbeye
300 ¶The morwe cam / and forth this Marchant rydeth
301 To fflandres ward / his Prentys wel hym gydeth
302 Til he cam / in to Brugges murily
303 Now goth this Marchant/ fa{s}te and bi{s}ily
304 Aboute his nede / and byeth and crea|un|ceth
305 He neither / pleyeth at the dees / ne daunceth
306 But as a Marchant/ shortly for to telle
307 He let his lyf / and ther I lete hym dwelle
308 ¶The sonday next / the Marchant was agon
309 To Seint denys / ycomen is daun |Iohan|
310 With crowne and berd / al fre{ss}h |&| newe shaue
311 In al the hous / ther nas {s}o litel a knaue
312 Ne no wight ellis / |þt| he nas ful fayn
313 That my lord daun |Iohan| / was come agayn
314 And shortly / to the poynt/ right for to gon
315 This faire wyf/ acorded with daun |Iohan|
316 That for thi{s}e hundred frankes / he sholde al nyght/
317 Haue hire in his armes / bolt vpright/
318 And this acord / |per|fourned was in dede
319 In myrthe al nyght/ a bi{s}y lyf they lede
{{Folio 208r}}
320 Til it was day / that daun |Iohan| wente his way
321 And bad the meynee / fare wel haue good day
322 ffor noon of hem / ne no wight in the town
323 Hath of daun |Iohan| / right no su{s}pecioun
324 And forth he rydeth hom / til his Abbeye
325 Or where hym li{s}t/ namoore of hym I seye
326 ¶This Marchant/ whan |þt| ended was the faire
327 To Seint Denys / he gan for to repaire
328 And with his wyf / he maketh fe{s}te and cheere
329 And telleth hi|re| / that chaffare is so deere
330 That nedes / mo{s}te he make a cheuy{ss}ance
331 ffor he was bounden / in a recony{ss}ance
332 To paye/ twenty thou{s}and sheeld anon
333 ffor which / this Marchant/ is to Parys gon
334 To borwe / of |cer|teyne freendes / that he hadde
335 A |cer|teyn frankes / and s|om|me |with| hym he ladde
336 And whan |þt| he was come / in to the town
337 ffor greet chiertee / and greet affeccioun
338 Vn to daun |Iohan| / he fir{s}t goth / hym to pleye
339 Nat for to axe / or borwe of hym moneye
340 But for to wite / and {s}een of his welfare
341 And for to tellen hym / of his chaffare
342 As freendes doon / whan they been met yfeere
343 Daun |Iohan| / hym maketh fe{s}te / and murye cheere
344 And he hym tolde agayn / ful specially
345 How he hadde / wel yboght/ and |gra|ciou{s}ly
346 Thanked be god / al hool his marchandi{s}e
347 Saue |þt| he mo{s}te / in alle maner wy{s}e
348 Maken a cheuy{ss}ance / as for his be{s}te
349 And thanne / he sholde been / in ioye and re{s}te
350 ¶Daun |Iohan| an{s}werde / certes I am fayn
351 That ye in heele / ar comen hom agayn
352 And if |þt| I were riche / as haue I bli{ss}e
353 Of twenty thou{s}and sheeld / sholde ye nat my{ss}e
354 ffor ye {s}o kyndely / this oother day
355 Lente me gold / and as I kan and may
356 I thanke yow / by god / and by Seint Iame
357 But nathelees / I took vn to oure dame
358 Yowre wyf at hom / the same gold agayn
359 Vp on youre bench / she woot it wel certayn
{{Folio 208v}}
360 By |cer|teyn toknes / that I kan yow telle
361 Now by youre leue / I may no lenger dwelle
362 Oure Abbot/ wol out of this town anon
363 And in his compaignye / moot I gon
364 Greet wel oure dame / myn owene Nece swete
365 And fare wel deere co{s}yn / til we meete
366 ¶This Marchant/ which |þt| was ful war and wys
367 Creanced hath / and payed eek in Parys
368 To |cer|teyn lombardes / redy in hir hond
369 The somme of gold / and gat of hem his bond
¶{.}i{.} obligacionem
370 And hoom he gooth / murye as a Papyniay
371 ffor wel he knew / he {s}tood in swich array
372 That nedes mo{s}te he wynne / in that viage
373 A thou{s}and frankes / abouen al his co{s}tage
374 ¶His wyf ful redy / mette hym at the gate
375 As she was wont/ of old v{s}age algate
376 And al that nyght/ in myrthe they bi{s}ette
377 ffor he was riche / and cleerly out of dette
378 ¶Whan it was day / this Marchant gan embrace
379 His wyf al newe / and ki{s}te hi|re| on hir face
380 And vp he goth / and maketh it ful tough
381 Namoore quod she / by god ye haue ynough
382 And wantownely agayn / with hym she pleyde
383 Til at the la{s}te / this Marchant seyde
384 ¶By god quod he / I am alitel wroth
385 With yow my wyf / al thogh it be me looth
386 And woot ye why / by god as |þt| I ge{ss}e
387 That ye han maad / a manere strangene{ss}e
388 Bitwixen me / and my co{s}yn Daun |Iohan|
389 Ye sholde han warned me / er I had gon
390 That he yow hadde / a hundred frankes payed
391 Be redy tokne / and heeld hym yuele apayed
392 ffor that I to hym / spak of cheuy{ss}ance
393 Me semed so / as by his contenance
394 But nathelees / by god oure heuene kyng/
395 I thoghte nat/ to axe of hym no thyng/
396 I pray thee wyf/ ne do namoore so
397 Tel me alwey / er that I fro thee go
398 If any dettour / hath in myn ab{s}ence
399 Ypayed thee / le{s}t thurgh thy necligence
{{Folio 209r}}
400 I myghte hym axe / a thyng/ |þt| he hath payed
401 ¶This wyf / was nat afered ne afrayed
402 But boldely she seyde / and that anon
403 Marie I diffye / the fal{s}e Monk/ daun |Iohan|
404 I kepe nat of his toknes / ne|uer| a del
405 He took me |cer|teyn gold / this woot I wel
406 What yuel thedam / on his Monkes snowte
407 ffor god it woot/ I wende with outen dowte
408 That he hadde yeue it me / by cau{s}e of yow
409 To doon ther with / myn honour / and my prow
410 ffor co{s}ynage / and eek for bele cheere
411 That he hath had / ful ofte tymes heere
412 ¶But sith I se / it stant in this di{s}ioynt/
413 I wole an{s}were yow / shortly to the poynt/
414 Ye han mo slakker dettours / than am I
415 ffor I wol paye yow / wel and redily
416 ffro day to day / and if {s}o be I fayle
417 I am youre wyf / score it vp on my tayle
418 And I shal paye / as {s}oone as euere I may
419 ffor by my trouthe / I haue on myn array
420 And nat in wa{s}t/ bi{s}towed e|uer|y del
421 And for I haue / bi{s}towed it {s}o wel
422 ffor youre honour / for goddes sake I seye
423 As be nat wrooth / but lat vs laughe |&| pleye
424 Ye shal / my ioly body han to wedde
425 By god / I wol noght paye yow but abedde
426 fforgyue it me / myn owene spou{s}e deere
427 Turn hiderward / and maketh bettre cheere
428 ¶This Marchant/ saugh / ther was no remedye
429 And for to chide / it nere but folye
430 Syn that the thyng/ may nat amended be
431 Now wyf he seyde / and I foryeue it thee
432 But by thy lyf/ ne be namoore {s}o large
433 Keep bet thy good / this yeue {^}{{I}} thee in charge
434 Thus endeth my tale / and god vs sende
435 Taillynge ynough / vn to oure lyues ende
¶Here endeth / the Shipmannes tale


1] Old spelling is retained except for ligatured letters, which are normalized. Expansions of contractions and abbreviations are placed within vertical bars. The original lineation is retained, but not small capitals and the text of signatures, catchwords, and running titles. Irregularities in spacing are ignored. Reference citations are by folio numbers and editorial through-ms and through-tale line numbers. Unusual characters are identified as follows:
{s} : long-s
{ss} : ligatured long-s long-s
{C|} : capitulum
{`,} : comma under opening single quotation mark
{?.} : punctus elevatus
{^} : caret
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Publication Start Year: 
RPO poem Editors: 
Ian Lancashire
RPO Edition: 
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Assisted by Nancy Misener and Alex Bisset.