Beowulf and Judith. Ed. E. V. K. Dobbie. Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records 4. New York, 1953; ); Beowulf. Trans. by Francis B. Gummere. Harvard Classics. Vol. 49. Collier, 1910. Source: British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A. xv: electronic transcription of ms: Cameron A4.1 in the Dictionary of Old English corpus; electronic transcription of translation: Robin Katsuya-Corbet (Internet Wiretap edition).
1Hwæt. We Gardena in geardagum,
LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
2þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon,
of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
3hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.
we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
4Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena/ þreatum,
Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
5monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah,
from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
6egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð/
awing the earls. Since erst he lay
7feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad,
friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
8weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah,
for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
9oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra
till before him the folk, both far and near,
10ofer hronrade hyran scolde,
who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
11gomban gyldan. þæt wæs god cyning.
gave him gifts: a good king he!
12ðæm eafera wæs æfter cenned,
To him an heir was afterward born,
13geong in geardum, þone god sende
a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
14folce to frofre; fyrenðearfe ongeat
to favor the folk, feeling their woe
15þe hie ær drugon aldorlease/
that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
16lange hwile. Him þæs liffrea,
so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
17wuldres wealdend, woroldare forgeaf;
the Wielder of Wonder, with world's renown.
18Beowulf wæs breme blæd wide sprang/,
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him,
19Scyldes eafera Scedelandum in.
son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands.
20Swa sceal geong/ guma/ gode gewyrcean,
So becomes it a youth to quit him well
21fromum feohgiftum on fæder bearme/,
with his father's friends, by fee and gift,
22þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen
that to aid him, aged, in after days,
23wilgesiþas, þonne wig cume,
come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,
24leode gelæsten; lofdædum sceal
liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds
25in mægþa gehwære man geþeon.
shall an earl have honor in every clan.
26Him ða Scyld gewat to gescæphwile
Forth he fared at the fated moment,
27felahror feran on frean wære.
sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.
28Hi hyne þa ætbæron to brimes faroðe,
Then they bore him over to ocean's billow,
29swæse gesiþas, swa he selfa bæd,
loving clansmen, as late he charged them,
30þenden wordum weold wine Scyldinga;
while wielded words the winsome Scyld,
31leof landfruma lange ahte.
the leader beloved who long had ruled....
32þær æt hyðe stod hringedstefna,
In the roadstead rocked a ring-dight vessel,
33isig ond utfus, æþelinges fær.
ice-flecked, outbound, atheling's barge:
34Aledon þa leofne þeoden,
there laid they down their darling lord
35beaga bryttan, on bearm scipes,
on the breast of the boat, the breaker-of-rings,
36mærne be mæste. þær wæs madma fela
by the mast the mighty one. Many a treasure
37of feorwegum, frætwa, gelæded;
fetched from far was freighted with him.
38ne hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan
No ship have I known so nobly dight
39hildewæpnum ond heaðowædum,
with weapons of war and weeds of battle,
40billum ond byrnum; him on bearme læg
with breastplate and blade: on his bosom lay
41madma mænigo, þa him mid scoldon
a heaped hoard that hence should go
42on flodes æht feor gewitan.
far o'er the flood with him floating away.
43Nalæs hi hine læssan lacum teodan,
No less these loaded the lordly gifts,
44þeodgestreonum, þon þa dydon
thanes' huge treasure, than those had done
45þe hine æt frumsceafte forð onsendon
who in former time forth had sent him
46ænne ofer yðe umborwesende.
sole on the seas, a suckling child.
47þa gyt hie him asetton segen geldenne/
High o'er his head they hoist the standard,
48heah ofer heafod, leton holm beran/,
a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,
49geafon on garsecg; him wæs geomor sefa,
gave him to ocean. Grave were their spirits,
50murnende mod. Men ne cunnon
mournful their mood. No man is able
51secgan to soðe, selerædende/,
to say in sooth, no son of the halls,
52hæleð under heofenum, hwa þæm hlæste onfeng.
no hero 'neath heaven, -- who harbored that freight!
53ða wæs on burgum Beowulf Scyldinga,
Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,
54leof leodcyning, longe þrage
leader beloved, and long he ruled
55folcum gefræge fæder ellor hwearf,
in fame with all folk, since his father had gone
56aldor of earde, oþþæt him eft onwoc
away from the world, till awoke an heir,
57heah Healfdene; heold þenden lifde,
haughty Healfdene, who held through life,
58gamol ond guðreouw, glæde Scyldingas.
sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.
59ðæm feower bearn forð gerimed
Then, one after one, there woke to him,
60in worold wocun, weoroda ræswan/,
to the chieftain of clansmen, children four:
61Heorogar ond Hroðgar ond Halga til;
Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave;
62hyrde ic þæt wæs/ Onelan cwen,
and I heard that -- was --'s queen,
the Heathoscylfing's helpmate dear.
64þa wæs Hroðgare heresped gyfen,
To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,
65wiges weorðmynd, þæt him his winemagas
such honor of combat, that all his kin
66georne hyrdon, oðð þæt seo geogoð geweox,
obeyed him gladly till great grew his band
67magodriht micel. Him on mod bearn
of youthful comrades. It came in his mind
68þæt healreced hatan wolde,
to bid his henchmen a hall uprear,
69medoærn/ micel, men gewyrcean
a master mead-house, mightier far
70þonne/ yldo bearn æfre gefrunon,
than ever was seen by the sons of earth,
71ond þær on innan eall gedælan
and within it, then, to old and young
72geongum ond ealdum, swylc him god sealde,
he would all allot that the Lord had sent him,
73buton folcscare ond feorum gumena.
save only the land and the lives of his men.
74ða ic wide gefrægn weorc gebannan
Wide, I heard, was the work commanded,
75manigre mægþe geond þisne middangeard,
for many a tribe this mid-earth round,
76folcstede frætwan. Him on fyrste gelomp,
to fashion the folkstead. It fell, as he ordered,
77ædre mid yldum, þæt hit wearð ealgearo,
in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,
78healærna mæst; scop him Heort naman
of halls the noblest: Heorot he named it
79se þe his wordes geweald wide hæfde.
whose message had might in many a land.
80He beot ne aleh, beagas dælde,
Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,
81sinc æt symle. Sele hlifade,
treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,
82heah ond horngeap, heaðowylma bad,
high, gabled wide, the hot surge waiting
83laðan liges; ne wæs hit lenge þa gen
of furious flame. Nor far was that day
84þæt se ecghete/ aþumsweorum/,
when father and son-in-law stood in feud
85æfter wælniðe wæcnan scolde.
for warfare and hatred that woke again.
86ða se ellengæst earfoðlice
With envy and anger an evil spirit
87þrage geþolode, se þe in þystrum bad,
endured the dole in his dark abode,
88þæt he dogora gehwam dream gehyrde
that he heard each day the din of revel
89hludne in healle; þær wæs hearpan sweg,
high in the hall: there harps rang out,
90swutol sang scopes. Sægde se þe cuþe
clear song of the singer. He sang who knew
91frumsceaft fira feorran reccan,
tales of the early time of man,
92cwæð þæt se ælmihtiga eorðan worhte/,
how the Almighty made the earth,
93wlitebeorhtne wang, swa wæter bebugeð,
fairest fields enfolded by water,
94gesette sigehreþig sunnan ond monan
set, triumphant, sun and moon
95leoman to leohte landbuendum
for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,
96ond gefrætwade foldan sceatas
and braided bright the breast of earth
97leomum ond leafum, lif eac gesceop
with limbs and leaves, made life for all
98cynna gehwylcum þara ðe cwice hwyrfaþ.
of mortal beings that breathe and move.
99Swa ða drihtguman dreamum lifdon
So lived the clansmen in cheer and revel
100eadiglice, oððæt an ongan
a winsome life, till one began
101fyrene fremman/ feond on helle.
to fashion evils, that field of hell.
102Wæs se grimma gæst Grendel haten,
Grendel this monster grim was called,
103mære mearcstapa, se þe moras heold,
march-riever mighty, in moorland living,
104fen ond fæsten; fifelcynnes eard
in fen and fastness; fief of the giants
105wonsæli wer weardode hwile,
the hapless wight a while had kept
106siþðan him scyppend forscrifen hæfde
since the Creator his exile doomed.
107in Caines cynne. þone cwealm gewræc
On kin of Cain was the killing avenged
108ece drihten, þæs þe he Abel slog;
by sovran God for slaughtered Abel.
109ne gefeah he þære fæhðe, ac he hine feor forwræc,
Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,
110metod for þy mane, mancynne fram.
for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.
111þanon untydras ealle onwocon,
Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,
112eotenas ond ylfe ond orcneas,
Etins and elves and evil-spirits,
113swylce gigantas/, þa wið gode wunnon
as well as the giants that warred with God
114lange þrage; he him ðæs lean forgeald.
weary while: but their wage was paid them!
115Gewat ða neosian, syþðan niht becom,
WENT he forth to find at fall of night
116hean huses, hu hit Hringdene
that haughty house, and heed wherever
117æfter beorþege gebun hæfdon.
the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone.
118Fand þa ðær inne æþelinga gedriht
Found within it the atheling band
119swefan æfter symble; sorge ne cuðon,
asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
120wonsceaft wera. Wiht unhælo,
of human hardship. Unhallowed wight,
121grim ond grædig, gearo sona wæs,
grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
122reoc ond reþe, ond on ræste genam
wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
123þritig þegna, þanon eft gewat
thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
124huðe hremig to ham faran,
fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
125mid þære wælfylle wica neosan.
laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
126ða wæs on uhtan mid ærdæge
Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
127Grendles guðcræft gumum undyrne;
the might of Grendel to men was known;
128þa wæs æfter wiste wop up ahafen,
then after wassail was wail uplifted,
129micel morgensweg. Mære þeoden,
loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief,
130æþeling ærgod, unbliðe sæt,
atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
131þolode ðryðswyð, þegnsorge dreah,
labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
132syðþan hie þæs laðan last sceawedon,
when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
133wergan gastes; wæs þæt gewin to strang,
spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
134lað ond longsum. Næs hit lengra fyrst,
too long, too loathsome. Not late the respite;
135ac ymb ane niht eft gefremede
with night returning, anew began
136morðbeala mare ond no mearn fore,
ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
137fæhðe ond fyrene; wæs to fæst on þam.
firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
138þa wæs eaðfynde þe him elles hwær
They were easy to find who elsewhere sought
139gerumlicor ræste sohte/,
in room remote their rest at night,
140bed æfter burum, ða him gebeacnod wæs,
bed in the bowers, when that bale was shown,
141gesægd soðlice sweotolan tacne
was seen in sooth, with surest token, --
142healðegnes hete; heold hyne syðþan
the hall-thane's hate. Such held themselves
143fyr ond fæstor se þæm feonde ætwand.
far and fast who the fiend outran!
144Swa rixode ond wið rihte wan,
Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
145ana wið eallum, oðþæt idel stod
one against all; until empty stood
146husa selest. Wæs seo hwil micel;
that lordly building, and long it bode so.
147XII wintra tid torn geþolode
Twelve years' tide the trouble he bore,
148wine Scyldinga/, weana gehwelcne,
sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
149sidra sorga. Forðam secgum/ wearð,
boundless cares. There came unhidden
150ylda bearnum, undyrne cuð,
tidings true to the tribes of men,
151gyddum geomore, þætte Grendel wan
in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
152hwile wið Hroþgar, heteniðas wæg,
harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
153fyrene ond fæhðe fela missera,
what murder and massacre, many a year,
154singale sæce, sibbe ne wolde
feud unfading, -- refused consent
155wið manna hwone mægenes Deniga,
to deal with any of Daneland's earls,
156feorhbealo feorran, fea þingian,
make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
157ne þær nænig witena wenan þorfte
still less did the wise men ween to get
158beorhtre bote to banan/ folmum,
great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
159ac/ se/ æglæca ehtende wæs,
But the evil one ambushed old and young
160deorc deaþscua, duguþe ond geogoþe,
death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
161seomade ond syrede, sinnihte heold
lured, or lurked in the livelong night
162mistige moras. men ne cunnon
of misty moorlands: men may say not
163hwyder helrunan hwyrftum scriþað.
where the haunts of these Hell-Runes be.
164Swa fela fyrena feond mancynnes,
Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,
165atol angengea, oft gefremede,
lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,
166heardra hynða. Heorot eardode,
harassings heavy. O'er Heorot he lorded,
167sincfage sel sweartum nihtum;
gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
168no he þone gifstol gretan moste,
and ne'er could the prince approach his throne,
169maþðum for metode, ne his myne wisse.
-- 'twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
170þæt wæs wræc micel wine Scyldinga,
Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings'-friend,
171modes brecða. Monig oft gesæt
heart-rending misery. Many nobles
172rice to rune; ræd eahtedon
sat assembled, and searched out counsel
173hwæt swiðferhðum selest wære
how it were best for bold-hearted men
174wið færgryrum to gefremmanne.
against harassing terror to try their hand.
175Hwilum hie geheton æt hærgtrafum/
Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
176wigweorþunga, wordum bædon
altar-offerings, asked with words
177þæt him gastbona geoce gefremede
that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
178wið þeodþreaum. Swylc wæs þeaw hyra,
for the pain of their people. Their practice this,
179hæþenra hyht; helle gemundon
their heathen hope; 'twas Hell they thought of
180in modsefan, metod hie ne cuþon,
in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not,
181dæda demend, ne wiston hie drihten god,
Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,
182ne hie huru heofena helm herian ne cuþon,
nor Heaven's-Helmet heeded they ever,
183wuldres waldend. Wa bið þæm ðe sceal
Wielder-of-Wonder. -- Woe for that man
184þurh sliðne nið sawle bescufan
who in harm and hatred hales his soul
185in fyres fæþm, frofre ne wenan,
to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
186wihte gewendan; wel bið þæm þe mot
awaits he ever. But well for him
187æfter deaðdæge drihten secean
that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
188ond to fæder fæþmum freoðo wilnian.
and friendship find in the Father's arms!
189Swa ða mælceare maga Healfdenes
THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdene
190singala seað, ne mihte snotor hæleð
with the woe of these days; not wisest men
191wean onwendan; wæs þæt gewin to swyð,
assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,
192laþ ond longsum, þe on ða leode becom,
loathly and long, that lay on his folk,
193nydwracu niþgrim, nihtbealwa mæst.
most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.
194þæt fram ham gefrægn Higelaces þegn,
This heard in his home Hygelac's thane,
195god mid Geatum, Grendles dæda;
great among Geats, of Grendel's doings.
196se wæs moncynnes mægenes strengest
He was the mightiest man of valor
197on þæm dæge þysses lifes,
in that same day of this our life,
198æþele ond eacen. Het him yðlidan
stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker
199godne gegyrwan, cwæð, hu guðcyning
he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he,
200ofer swanrade secean wolde,
far o'er the swan-road he fain would seek,
201mærne þeoden, þa him wæs manna þearf.
the noble monarch who needed men!
202ðone siðfæt him snotere ceorlas
The prince's journey by prudent folk
203lythwon logon, þeah he him leof wære;
was little blamed, though they loved him dear;
204hwetton higerofne/, hæl sceawedon.
they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.
205Hæfde se goda Geata leoda
And now the bold one from bands of Geats
206cempan gecorone þara þe he cenoste
comrades chose, the keenest of warriors
207findan mihte; XVna sum
e'er he could find; with fourteen men
208sundwudu sohte; secg wisade,
the sea-wood he sought, and, sailor proved,
209lagucræftig mon, landgemyrcu.
led them on to the land's confines.
210Fyrst forð gewat. Flota wæs on yðum,
Time had now flown; afloat was the ship,
211bat under beorge. Beornas gearwe
boat under bluff. On board they climbed,
212on stefn stigon; streamas wundon,
warriors ready; waves were churning
213sund wið sande; secgas bæron
sea with sand; the sailors bore
214on bearm nacan beorhte frætwe,
on the breast of the bark their bright array,
215guðsearo geatolic; guman ut scufon,
their mail and weapons: the men pushed off,
216weras on wilsið, wudu bundenne.
on its willing way, the well-braced craft.
217Gewat þa ofer wægholm, winde gefysed,
Then moved o'er the waters by might of the wind
218flota famiheals fugle gelicost,
that bark like a bird with breast of foam,
219oðþæt ymb antid oþres dogores
till in season due, on the second day,
220wundenstefna gewaden hæfde
the curved prow such course had run
221þæt ða liðende land gesawon,
that sailors now could see the land,
222brimclifu blican, beorgas steape,
sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,
223side sænæssas; þa wæs sund liden,
headlands broad. Their haven was found,
224eoletes æt ende. þanon up hraðe
their journey ended. Up then quickly
225Wedera leode on wang stigon,
the Weders' clansmen climbed ashore,
226sæwudu sældon syrcan hrysedon,
anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing
227guðgewædo, gode þancedon
and gear of battle: God they thanked
228þæs þe him yþlade eaðe wurdon.
for passing in peace o'er the paths of the sea.
229þa of wealle geseah weard Scildinga,
Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman,
230se þe holmclifu healdan scolde,
a warden that watched the water-side,
231beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas,
how they bore o'er the gangway glittering shields,
232fyrdsearu fuslicu; hine fyrwyt bræc
war-gear in readiness; wonder seized him
233modgehygdum, hwæt þa men wæron.
to know what manner of men they were.
234Gewat him þa to waroðe wicge ridan
Straight to the strand his steed he rode,
235þegn Hroðgares, þrymmum cwehte
Hrothgar's henchman; with hand of might
236mægenwudu mundum, meþelwordum frægn:
he shook his spear, and spake in parley.
237Hwæt syndon ge searohæbbendra,
"Who are ye, then, ye armed men,
238byrnum werede, þe þus brontne ceol
mailed folk, that yon mighty vessel
239ofer lagustræte lædan cwomon,
have urged thus over the ocean ways,
240hider ofer holmas? le/ wæs
here o'er the waters? A warden I,
241endesæta, ægwearde heold,
sentinel set o'er the sea-march here,
242þe on land Dena laðra nænig
lest any foe to the folk of Danes
243mid scipherge sceðþan ne meahte.
with harrying fleet should harm the land.
244No her cuðlicor cuman ongunnon
No aliens ever at ease thus bore them,
245lindhæbbende; ne ge leafnesword
linden-wielders: yet word-of-leave
246guðfremmendra gearwe ne wisson,
clearly ye lack from clansmen here,
247maga gemedu. Næfre ic maran geseah
my folk's agreement. -- A greater ne'er saw I
248eorla ofer eorþan ðonne is eower sum,
of warriors in world than is one of you, --
249secg on searwum; nis þæt seldguma,
yon hero in harness! No henchman he
250wæpnum geweorðad, næfne/ him his wlite leoge,
worthied by weapons, if witness his features,
251ænlic ansyn. Nu ic eower sceal
his peerless presence! I pray you, though, tell
252frumcyn witan, ær ge fyr heonan ,
your folk and home, lest hence ye fare
253leassceaweras, on land Dena
suspect to wander your way as spies
254furþur feran. Nu ge feorbuend,
in Danish land. Now, dwellers afar,
255mereliðende, minne/ gehyrað
ocean-travellers, take from me
256anfealdne geþoht: Ofost is selest
simple advice: the sooner the better
257to gecyðanne hwanan eowre cyme syndon.
I hear of the country whence ye came."
258Him se yldesta ondswarode,
To him the stateliest spake in answer;
259werodes wisa, wordhord onleac:
the warriors' leader his word-hoard unlocked:--
260We synt gumcynnes Geata leode
"We are by kin of the clan of Geats,
261ond Higelaces heorðgeneatas.
and Hygelac's own hearth-fellows we.
262Wæs min fæder folcum gecyþed,
To folk afar was my father known,
263æþele ordfruma, Ecgþeow haten.
noble atheling, Ecgtheow named.
264Gebad wintra worn, ær he on weg hwurfe,
Full of winters, he fared away
265gamol of geardum; hine gearwe geman
aged from earth; he is honored still
266witena welhwylc wide geond eorþan.
through width of the world by wise men all.
267We þurh holdne hige hlaford þinne,
To thy lord and liege in loyal mood
268sunu Healfdenes, secean cwomon,
we hasten hither, to Healfdene's son,
269leodgebyrgean; wes þu us larena god.
people-protector: be pleased to advise us!
270Habbað we to þæm mæran micel ærende,
To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand,
271Deniga frean, ne sceal þær dyrne sum
to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I right
272wesan, þæs ic wene. þu wast gif hit is
that aught be hidden. We hear -- thou knowest
273swa we soþlice secgan hyrdon
if sooth it is -- the saying of men,
274þæt mid Scyldingum sceaðona/ ic nat hwylc,
that amid the Scyldings a scathing monster,
275deogol dædhata, deorcum nihtum
dark ill-doer, in dusky nights
276eaweð þurh egsan uncuðne nið,
shows terrific his rage unmatched,
277hynðu ond hrafyl. Ic þæs Hroðgar mæg
hatred and murder. To Hrothgar I
278þurh rumne sefan ræd gelæran,
in greatness of soul would succor bring,
279hu he frod ond god feond oferswyðeþ,
so the Wise-and-Brave may worst his foes, --
280gyf him edwendan æfre scolde
if ever the end of ills is fated,
281bealuwa bisigu, bot eft cuman,
of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,
282ond þa cearwylmas colran wurðaþ;
and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;
283oððe a syþðan earfoðþrage,
else ever afterward anguish-days
284þreanyd þolað, þenden þær wunað
he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place
285on heahstede husa selest.
high on its hill that house unpeered!"
286Weard maþelode, ðær on wicge sæt,
Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,
287ombeht unforht: æghwæþres sceal
clansman unquailing: "The keen-souled thane
288scearp scyldwiga gescad witan,
must be skilled to sever and sunder duly
289worda ond worca, se þe wel þenceð.
words and works, if he well intends.
290Ic þæt gehyre, þæt þis is hold weorod
I gather, this band is graciously bent
291frean Scyldinga. Gewitaþ forð beran
to the Scyldings' master. March, then, bearing
292wæpen ond gewædu; ic eow wisige.
weapons and weeds the way I show you.
293Swylce ic maguþegnas mine hate
I will bid my men your boat meanwhile
294wið feonda gehwone flotan eowerne,
to guard for fear lest foemen come, --
295niwtyrwydne nacan on sande
your new-tarred ship by shore of ocean
296arum healdan, oþðæt eft byreð
faithfully watching till once again
297ofer lagustreamas leofne mannan
it waft o'er the waters those well-loved thanes,
298wudu wundenhals to Wedermearce,
-- winding-neck'd wood, -- to Weders' bounds,
299godfremmendra swylcum gifeþe bið
heroes such as the hest of fate
300þæt þone hilderæs hal gedigeð.
shall succor and save from the shock of war."
301Gewiton him þa feran. Flota stille bad,
They bent them to march, -- the boat lay still,
302seomode on sale/ sidfæþmed scip,
fettered by cable and fast at anchor,
303on ancre fæst. Eoforlic scionon
broad-bosomed ship. -- Then shone the boars
304ofer hleorberan gehroden golde,
over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,
305fah ond fyrheard; ferhwearde heold
keen and gleaming, guard it kept
306guþmod grimmon/. Guman onetton,
o'er the man of war, as marched along
307sigon ætsomne, oþþæt hy sæl/ timbred,
heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,
308geatolic ond goldfah, ongyton mihton;
broad of gable and bright with gold:
309þæt wæs foremærost foldbuendum
that was the fairest, 'mid folk of earth,
310receda under roderum, on þæm se rica bad;
of houses 'neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,
311lixte se leoma ofer landa fela.
and the gleam of it lightened o'er lands afar.
312Him þa hildedeor hof/ modigra
The sturdy shieldsman showed that bright
313torht getæhte, þæt hie him to mihton
burg-of-the-boldest; bade them go
314gegnum gangan; guðbeorna sum
straightway thither; his steed then turned,
315wicg gewende, word æfter cwæð:
hardy hero, and hailed them thus:--
316Mæl is me to feran; fæder alwalda
"Tis time that I fare from you. Father Almighty
317mid arstafum eowic gehealde
in grace and mercy guard you well,
318siða gesunde. Ic to sæ wille
safe in your seekings. Seaward I go,
319wið wrað werod wearde healdan.
'gainst hostile warriors hold my watch."
320Stræt wæs stanfah, stig wisode
STONE-BRIGHT the street: it showed the way
321gumum ætgædere. Guðbyrne scan
to the crowd of clansmen. Corselets glistened
322heard hondlocen, hringiren scir
hand-forged, hard; on their harness bright
323song in searwum, þa hie to sele furðum
the steel ring sang, as they strode along
324in hyra gryregeatwum gangan cwomon.
in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.
325Setton sæmeþe side scyldas,
There, weary of ocean, the wall along
326rondas regnhearde, wið þæs recedes weal,
they set their bucklers, their broad shields, down,
327bugon þa to bence. Byrnan hringdon,
and bowed them to bench: the breastplates clanged,
328guðsearo gumena; garas stodon,
war-gear of men; their weapons stacked,
329sæmanna searo, samod ætgædere,
spears of the seafarers stood together,
330æscholt ufan græg; wæs se irenþreat
gray-tipped ash: that iron band
331wæpnum gewurþad. þa ðær wlonc hæleð
was worthily weaponed! -- A warrior proud
332oretmecgas æfter æþelum frægn:
asked of the heroes their home and kin.
333Hwanon ferigeað ge fætte scyldas,
"Whence, now, bear ye burnished shields,
334græge syrcan ond grimhelmas,
harness gray and helmets grim,
335heresceafta heap? Ic eom Hroðgares
spears in multitude? Messenger, I,
336ar ond ombiht. Ne seah ic elþeodige
Hrothgar's herald! Heroes so many
337þus manige men modiglicran.
ne'er met I as strangers of mood so strong.
338Wen ic þæt ge for wlenco, nalles for wræcsiðum,
'Tis plain that for prowess, not plunged into exile,
339ac for higeþrymmum/ Hroðgar sohton.
for high-hearted valor, Hrothgar ye seek!"
340Him þa ellenrof andswarode,
Him the sturdy-in-war bespake with words,
341wlanc Wedera leod, word æfter spræc,
proud earl of the Weders answer made,
342heard under helme: We synt Higelaces
hardy 'neath helmet:--"Hygelac's, we,
343beodgeneatas; Beowulf is min nama.
fellows at board; I am Beowulf named.
344Wille ic asecgan sunu Healfdenes,
I am seeking to say to the son of Healfdene
345mærum þeodne, min ærende,
this mission of mine, to thy master-lord,
346aldre þinum, gif he us geunnan wile
the doughty prince, if he deign at all
347þæt we hine swa godne gretan moton.
grace that we greet him, the good one, now."
348Wulfgar maþelode þæt wæs Wendla leod;
Wulfgar spake, the Wendles' chieftain,
349wæs his modsefa manegum gecyðed,
whose might of mind to many was known,
350wig ond wisdom: Ic þæs wine Deniga,
his courage and counsel: "The king of Danes,
351frean Scildinga, frinan wille,
the Scyldings' friend, I fain will tell,
352beaga bryttan, swa þu bena eart,
the Breaker-of-Rings, as the boon thou askest,
353þeoden mærne, ymb þinne sið,
the famed prince, of thy faring hither,
354ond þe þa ondsware ædre gecyðan
and, swiftly after, such answer bring
355ðe me se goda agifan þenceð.
as the doughty monarch may deign to give."
356Hwearf þa hrædlice þær Hroðgar sæt
Hied then in haste to where Hrothgar sat
357eald ond anhar/ mid his eorla gedriht;
white-haired and old, his earls about him,
358eode ellenrof, þæt he for eaxlum gestod
till the stout thane stood at the shoulder there
359Deniga frean; cuþe he duguðe þeaw.
of the Danish king: good courtier he!
360Wulfgar maðelode to his/ winedrihtne:
Wulfgar spake to his winsome lord:--
361Her syndon geferede, feorran cumene
"Hither have fared to thee far-come men
362ofer geofenes begang Geata leode;
o'er the paths of ocean, people of Geatland;
363þone yldestan oretmecgas
and the stateliest there by his sturdy band
364Beowulf nemnað. Hy benan synt
is Beowulf named. This boon they seek,
365þæt hie, þeoden min, wið þe moton
that they, my master, may with thee
366wordum wrixlan. No ðu him wearne geteoh
have speech at will: nor spurn their prayer
367ðinra gegncwida, glædman Hroðgar.
to give them hearing, gracious Hrothgar!
368Hy on wiggetawum wyrðe þinceað
In weeds of the warrior worthy they,
369eorla geæhtlan; huru se aldor deah,
methinks, of our liking; their leader most surely,
370se þæm heaðorincum hider wisade.
a hero that hither his henchmen has led."
371Hroðgar maþelode, helm Scyldinga:
HROTHGAR answered, helmet of Scyldings:--
372Ic hine cuðe cnihtwesende.
"I knew him of yore in his youthful days;
373Wæs his ealdfæder Ecgþeo haten,
his aged father was Ecgtheow named,
374ðæm to ham forgeaf Hreþel Geata
to whom, at home, gave Hrethel the Geat
375angan dohtor; is his eafora/ nu
his only daughter. Their offspring bold
376heard her cumen, sohte holdne wine.
fares hither to seek the steadfast friend.
377ðonne sægdon þæt sæliþende,
And seamen, too, have said me this, --
378þa ðe gifsceattas Geata fyredon
who carried my gifts to the Geatish court,
379þyder to þance, þæt he XXXtiges
thither for thanks, -- he has thirty men's
380manna mægencræft on his mundgripe
heft of grasp in the gripe of his hand,
381heaþorof hæbbe. Hine halig god
the bold-in-battle. Blessed God
382for arstafum us onsende,
out of his mercy this man hath sent
383to Westdenum, þæs ic wen hæbbe,
to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed,
384wið Grendles gryre. Ic þæm/ godan sceal
against horror of Grendel. I hope to give
385for his modþræce madmas beodan.
the good youth gold for his gallant thought.
386Beo ðu on ofeste, hat in gan
Be thou in haste, and bid them hither,
387seon sibbegedriht samod ætgædere;
clan of kinsmen, to come before me;
388gesaga him eac wordum þæt hie sint wilcuman
and add this word, -- they are welcome guests
to folk of the Danes." [To the door of the hall
390 word/ inne abead:
Wulfgar went] and the word declared:--
391Eow het secgan sigedrihten min,
"To you this message my master sends,
392aldor Eastdena, þæt he eower æþelu can,
East-Danes' king, that your kin he knows,
393ond ge him syndon ofer sæwylmas
hardy heroes, and hails you all
394heardhicgende hider wilcuman.
welcome hither o'er waves of the sea!
395Nu ge moton gangan in eowrum guðgeatawum
Ye may wend your way in war-attire,
396under heregriman Hroðgar geseon;
and under helmets Hrothgar greet;
397lætað hildebord her onbidan,
but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,
398wudu, wælsceaftas, worda geþinges.
and wooden war-shafts wait its end."
399Aras þa se rica, ymb hine rinc manig,
Uprose the mighty one, ringed with his men,
400þryðlic þegna heap; sume þær bidon,
brave band of thanes: some bode without,
401heaðoreaf heoldon, swa him se hearda bebead.
battle-gear guarding, as bade the chief.
402Snyredon ætsomne, þa secg wisode,
Then hied that troop where the herald led them,
403under Heorotes hrof
under Heorot's roof: [the hero strode,]
404heard/ under helme, þæt he on heoðe gestod.
hardy 'neath helm, till the hearth he neared.
405Beowulf maðelode on him byrne scan,
Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed,
406searonet/ seowed smiþes orþancum:
war-net woven by wit of the smith:--
407Wæs þu, Hroðgar/, hal. Ic eom Higelaces
"Thou Hrothgar, hail! Hygelac's I,
408mæg ond magoðegn; hæbbe ic mærða fela
kinsman and follower. Fame a plenty
409ongunnen on geogoþe. Me wearð Grendles þing
have I gained in youth! These Grendel-deeds
410on minre eþeltyrf undyrne cuð;
I heard in my home-land heralded clear.
411secgað sæliðend þæt þæs sele stande,
Seafarers say how stands this hall,
412reced selesta, rinca gehwylcum
of buildings best, for your band of thanes
413idel ond unnyt, siððan æfenleoht
empty and idle, when evening sun
414under heofenes hador beholen weorþeð.
in the harbor of heaven is hidden away.
415þa me þæt gelærdon leode mine
So my vassals advised me well, --
416þa selestan, snotere ceorlas,
brave and wise, the best of men, --
417þeoden Hroðgar, þæt ic þe sohte,
O sovran Hrothgar, to seek thee here,
418forþan hie mægenes cræft minne/ cuþon,
for my nerve and my might they knew full well.
419selfe ofersawon, ða ic of searwum cwom,
Themselves had seen me from slaughter come
420fah from feondum. þær ic fife geband,
blood-flecked from foes, where five I bound,
421yðde eotena cyn ond on yðum slog
and that wild brood worsted. I' the waves I slew
422niceras nihtes, nearoþearfe dreah,
nicors by night, in need and peril
423wræc Wedera/ nið wean ahsodon,
avenging the Weders, whose woe they sought, --
424forgrand gramum, ond nu wið Grendel sceal,
crushing the grim ones. Grendel now,
425wið þam aglæcan, ana gehegan
monster cruel, be mine to quell
426ðing wið þyrse. Ic þe nu ða,
in single battle! So, from thee,
427brego Beorhtdena, biddan wille,
thou sovran of the Shining-Danes,
428eodor Scyldinga, anre bene,
Scyldings'-bulwark, a boon I seek, --
429þæt ðu me ne forwyrne, wigendra hleo,
and, Friend-of-the-folk, refuse it not,
430freowine folca, nu ic þus feorran com,
O Warriors'-shield, now I've wandered far, --
431þæt ic mote ana ond/ minra eorla gedryht,
that I alone with my liegemen here,
432þes hearda heap, Heorot fælsian.
this hardy band, may Heorot purge!
433Hæbbe ic eac geahsod þæt se æglæca
More I hear, that the monster dire,
434for his wonhydum wæpna ne recceð.
in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;
435Ic þæt þonne forhicge swa me Higelac sie,
hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,
436min mondrihten, modes bliðe,
king of my kindred, kind to me! --
437þæt ic sweord bere oþðe sidne scyld,
brand or buckler to bear in the fight,
438geolorand to guþe, ac ic mid grape sceal
gold-colored targe: but with gripe alone
439fon wið feonde ond ymb feorh sacan,
must I front the fiend and fight for life,
440lað wið laþum; ðær gelyfan sceal
foe against foe. Then faith be his
441dryhtnes dome se þe hine deað nimeð.
in the doom of the Lord whom death shall take.
442Wen ic þæt he wille, gif he wealdan mot,
Fain, I ween, if the fight he win,
443in þæm guðsele Geotena leode
in this hall of gold my Geatish band
444etan unforhte, swa he oft dyde,
will he fearless eat, -- as oft before, --
445mægen Hreðmanna. Na þu minne þearft
my noblest thanes. Nor need'st thou then
446hafalan hydan, ac he me habban wile
to hide my head; for his shall I be,
447dreore/ fahne, gif mec deað nimeð.
dyed in gore, if death must take me;
448Byreð blodig wæl, byrgean þenceð,
and my blood-covered body he'll bear as prey,
449eteð angenga unmurnlice,
ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,
450mearcað morhopu; no ðu ymb mines ne þearft
with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:
451lices feorme leng sorgian.
no further for me need'st food prepare!
452Onsend Higelace, gif mec hild nime,
To Hygelac send, if Hild should take me,
453beaduscruda betst, þæt mine breost wereð,
best of war-weeds, warding my breast,
454hrægla selest; þæt is Hrædlan laf,
armor excellent, heirloom of Hrethel
455Welandes geweorc. Gæð a wyrd swa hio scel.
and work of Wayland. Fares Wyrd as she must."
456Hroðgar maþelode, helm Scyldinga:
HROTHGAR spake, the Scyldings'-helmet:--
457For/ gewyrhtum/ þu, wine min Beowulf,
"For fight defensive, Friend my Beowulf,
458ond for arstafum usic sohtest.
to succor and save, thou hast sought us here.
459Gesloh þin fæder fæhðe mæste;
Thy father's combat a feud enkindled
460wearþ he Heaþolafe to handbonan
when Heatholaf with hand he slew
461mid Wilfingum; ða hine Wedera/ cyn
among the Wylfings; his Weder kin
462for herebrogan habban ne mihte.
for horror of fighting feared to hold him.
463þanon he gesohte Suðdena folc
Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,
464ofer yða gewealc, Arscyldinga.
over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,
465ða ic furþum weold folce Deniga/
when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,
466ond on geogoðe heold ginne/ rice,
wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,
467hordburh hæleþa; ða wæs Heregar dead,
this hoard-hold of heroes. Heorogar was dead,
468min yldra mæg unlifigende,
my elder brother, had breathed his last,
469bearn Healfdenes; se wæs betera ðonne ic.
Healfdene's bairn: he was better than I!
470Siððan þa fæhðe feo þingode;
Straightway the feud with fee I settled,
471sende ic Wylfingum ofer wæteres hrycg
to the Wylfings sent, o'er watery ridges,
472ealde madmas; he me aþas swor.
treasures olden: oaths he swore me.
473Sorh is me to secganne on sefan minum
Sore is my soul to say to any
474gumena ængum hwæt me Grendel hafað
of the race of man what ruth for me
475hynðo on Heorote mid his heteþancum,
in Heorot Grendel with hate hath wrought,
476færniða gefremed. Is min fletwerod,
what sudden harryings. Hall-folk fail me,
477wigheap gewanod; hie wyrd forsweop
my warriors wane; for Wyrd hath swept them
478on Grendles gryre. God eaþe mæg
into Grendel's grasp. But God is able
479þone dolsceaðan dæda getwæfan.
this deadly foe from his deeds to turn!
480Ful oft gebeotedon beore druncne
Boasted full oft, as my beer they drank,
481ofer ealowæge oretmecgas
earls o'er the ale-cup, armed men,
482þæt hie in beorsele bidan woldon
that they would bide in the beer-hall here,
483Grendles guþe mid gryrum ecga.
Grendel's attack with terror of blades.
484ðonne wæs þeos medoheal on morgentid,
Then was this mead-house at morning tide
485drihtsele dreorfah, þonne dæg lixte,
dyed with gore, when the daylight broke,
486eal bencþelu blode bestymed,
all the boards of the benches blood-besprinkled,
487heall heorudreore/; ahte ic holdra þy læs,
gory the hall: I had heroes the less,
488deorre duguðe, þe þa deað fornam.
doughty dear-ones that death had reft.
489Site nu to symle ond onsæl meoto,
-- But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words,
490sigehreð secgum, swa þin sefa hwette.
hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee."
491þa wæs Geatmæcgum geador ætsomne
Gathered together, the Geatish men
492on beorsele benc gerymed;
in the banquet-hall on bench assigned,
493þær swiðferhþe sittan eodon,
sturdy-spirited, sat them down,
494þryðum dealle. þegn nytte beheold,
hardy-hearted. A henchman attended,
495se þe on handa bær hroden ealowæge,
carried the carven cup in hand,
496scencte scir wered. Scop hwilum sang
served the clear mead. Oft minstrels sang
497hador on Heorote. þær wæs hæleða dream,
blithe in Heorot. Heroes revelled,
498duguð unlytel Dena ond Wedera.
no dearth of warriors, Weder and Dane.
499Unferð/ maþelode, Ecglafes bearn,
UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,
500þe æt fotum sæt frean Scyldinga,
who sat at the feet of the Scyldings' lord,
501onband beadurune wæs him Beowulfes sið,
unbound the battle-runes. -- Beowulf's quest,
502modges merefaran, micel æfþunca,
sturdy seafarer's, sorely galled him;
503forþon þe he ne uþe þæt ænig oðer man/
ever he envied that other men
504æfre mærða þon ma middangeardes
should more achieve in middle-earth
505gehedde under heofenum þonne he sylfa:
of fame under heaven than he himself. --
506Eart þu se Beowulf, se þe wið Brecan wunne,
"Art thou that Beowulf, Breca's rival,
507on sidne sæ ymb sund flite,
who emulous swam on the open sea,
508ðær git for wlence wada cunnedon
when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,
509ond for dolgilpe on deop wæter
and wantonly dared in waters deep
510aldrum neþdon? Ne inc ænig mon,
to risk your lives? No living man,
511ne leof ne lað, belean mihte
or lief or loath, from your labor dire
512sorhfullne sið, þa git on sund reon.
could you dissuade, from swimming the main.
513þær git eagorstream earmum þehton,
Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,
514mæton merestræta, mundum brugdon,
with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,
515glidon ofer garsecg; geofon yþum weol,
swam o'er the waters. Winter's storm
516wintrys wylmum/. Git on wæteres æht
rolled the rough waves. In realm of sea
517seofon niht swuncon; he þe æt sunde oferflat,
a sennight strove ye. In swimming he topped thee,
518hæfde mare mægen. þa hine on morgentid
had more of main! Him at morning-tide
519on Heaþoræmas/ holm up ætbær;
billows bore to the Battling Reamas,
520ðonon he gesohte swæsne //eþel//,
whence he hied to his home so dear
521leof his leodum, lond Brondinga,
beloved of his liegemen, to land of Brondings,
522freoðoburh fægere, þær he folc ahte
fastness fair, where his folk he ruled,
523burh ond beagas. Beot eal wið þe
town and treasure. In triumph o'er thee
524sunu Beanstanes soðe/ gelæste.
Beanstan's bairn his boast achieved.
525ðonne wene ic to þe wyrsan geþingea,
So ween I for thee a worse adventure
526ðeah þu heaðoræsa gehwær dohte,
-- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,
527grimre guðe, gif þu Grendles dearst
in struggle grim, -- if Grendel's approach
528nihtlongne fyrst nean bidan.
thou darst await through the watch of night!"
529Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes:
Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--
530Hwæt. þu worn fela, wine min Unferð/,
"What a deal hast uttered, dear my Unferth,
531beore druncen ymb Brecan spræce,
drunken with beer, of Breca now,
532sægdest from his siðe. Soð ic talige,
told of his triumph! Truth I claim it,
533þæt ic merestrengo maran ahte,
that I had more of might in the sea
534earfeþo on yþum, ðonne ænig oþer man.
than any man else, more ocean-endurance.
535Wit þæt gecwædon cnihtwesende
We twain had talked, in time of youth,
536ond gebeotedon wæron begen þa git
and made our boast, -- we were merely boys,
537on geogoðfeore þæt wit on garsecg ut
striplings still, -- to stake our lives
538aldrum neðdon, ond þæt geæfndon swa.
far at sea: and so we performed it.
539Hæfdon swurd nacod, þa wit on sund reon,
Naked swords, as we swam along,
540heard on handa; wit unc wið hronfixas
we held in hand, with hope to guard us
541werian þohton. No he wiht fram me
against the whales. Not a whit from me
542flodyþum feor fleotan meahte,
could he float afar o'er the flood of waves,
543hraþor on holme; no ic fram him wolde.
haste o'er the billows; nor him I abandoned.
544ða wit ætsomne on sæ wæron
Together we twain on the tides abode
545fif nihta fyrst, oþþæt unc flod todraf,
five nights full till the flood divided us,
546wado weallende, wedera cealdost,
churning waves and chillest weather,
547nipende niht, ond norþanwind
darkling night, and the northern wind
548heaðogrim ondhwearf; hreo wæron yþa.
ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.
549Wæs merefixa mod onhrered;
Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;
550þær me wið laðum licsyrce min,
yet me 'gainst the monsters my mailed coat,
551heard, hondlocen, helpe gefremede,
hard and hand-linked, help afforded, --
552beadohrægl broden on breostum læg
battle-sark braided my breast to ward,
553golde gegyrwed. Me to grunde teah
garnished with gold. There grasped me firm
554fah feondscaða, fæste hæfde
and haled me to bottom the hated foe,
555grim on grape; hwæþre me gyfeþe wearð
with grimmest gripe. 'Twas granted me, though,
556þæt ic aglæcan orde geræhte,
to pierce the monster with point of sword,
557hildebille; heaþoræs fornam
with blade of battle: huge beast of the sea
558mihtig meredeor þurh mine hand.
was whelmed by the hurly through hand of mine.
559Swa mec gelome laðgeteonan
ME thus often the evil monsters
560þreatedon þearle. Ic him þenode
thronging threatened. With thrust of my sword,
561deoran sweorde, swa hit gedefe wæs.
the darling, I dealt them due return!
562Næs hie ðære fylle gefean hæfdon,
Nowise had they bliss from their booty then
563manfordædlan, þæt hie me þegon,
to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,
564symbel ymbsæton sægrunde neah;
seated to banquet at bottom of sea;
565ac on mergenne mecum wunde
but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,
566be yðlafe uppe lægon,
on the edge of ocean up they lay,
567sweordum/ aswefede, þæt syðþan na
put to sleep by the sword. And since, by them
568ymb brontne ford brimliðende
on the fathomless sea-ways sailor-folk
569lade ne letton. Leoht eastan com,
are never molested. -- Light from east,
570beorht beacen godes; brimu swaþredon,
came bright God's beacon; the billows sank,
571þæt ic sænæssas geseon mihte,
so that I saw the sea-cliffs high,
572windige weallas. Wyrd oft nereð
windy walls. For Wyrd oft saveth
573unfægne eorl, þonne his ellen deah.
earl undoomed if he doughty be!
574Hwæþere me gesælde þæt ic mid sweorde ofsloh
And so it came that I killed with my sword
575niceras nigene. No ic on niht gefrægn
nine of the nicors. Of night-fought battles
576under heofones hwealf heardran feohtan,
ne'er heard I a harder 'neath heaven's dome,
577ne on egstreamum earmran mannon;
nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!
578hwaþere ic fara feng feore gedigde,
Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch,
579siþes werig. ða mec sæ oþbær,
though spent with swimming. The sea upbore me,
580flod æfter faroðe on Finna land,
flood of the tide, on Finnish land,
581wadu/ weallendu. No ic wiht fram þe
the welling waters. No wise of thee
582swylcra searoniða secgan hyrde,
have I heard men tell such terror of falchions,
583billa brogan. Breca næfre git
bitter battle. Breca ne'er yet,
584æt heaðolace, ne gehwæþer incer,
not one of you pair, in the play of war
585swa deorlice dæd gefremede
such daring deed has done at all
586fagum sweordum no ic þæs fela/ gylpe,
with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! --
587þeah ðu þinum broðrum to banan wurde,
though thou wast the bane of thy brethren dear,
588heafodmægum; þæs þu in helle scealt
thy closest kin, whence curse of hell
589werhðo dreogan, þeah þin wit/ duge/.
awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!
590Secge ic þe to soðe, sunu Ecglafes/,
For I say in sooth, thou son of Ecglaf,
591þæt næfre Grendel/ swa fela gryra gefremede,
never had Grendel these grim deeds wrought,
592atol æglæca, ealdre þinum,
monster dire, on thy master dear,
593hynðo on Heorote, gif þin hige wære,
in Heorot such havoc, if heart of thine
594sefa swa searogrim, swa þu self talast.
were as battle-bold as thy boast is loud!
595Ac he hafað onfunden þæt he þa fæhðe ne þearf,
But he has found no feud will happen;
596atole ecgþræce eower leode
from sword-clash dread of your Danish clan
597swiðe onsittan, Sigescyldinga;
he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.
598nymeð nydbade, nænegum arað
He forces pledges, favors none
599leode Deniga, ac he lust wigeð,
of the land of Danes, but lustily murders,
600swefeð ond sendeþ, secce ne weneþ
fights and feasts, nor feud he dreads
601to Gardenum. Ac ic him Geata sceal
from Spear-Dane men. But speedily now
602eafoð ond ellen ungeara nu,
shall I prove him the prowess and pride of the Geats,
603guþe gebeodan. Gæþ eft se þe mot
shall bid him battle. Blithe to mead
604to medo modig, siþþan morgenleoht
go he that listeth, when light of dawn
605ofer ylda bearn oþres dogores,
this morrow morning o'er men of earth,
606sunne sweglwered suþan scineð.
ether-robed sun from the south shall beam!"
607þa wæs on salum sinces brytta,
Joyous then was the Jewel-giver,
608gamolfeax ond guðrof; geoce gelyfde
hoar-haired, war-brave; help awaited
609brego Beorhtdena, gehyrde on Beowulfe
the Bright-Danes' prince, from Beowulf hearing,
610folces hyrde fæstrædne geþoht.
folk's good shepherd, such firm resolve.
611ðær wæs hæleþa hleahtor/, hlyn swynsode,
Then was laughter of liegemen loud resounding
612word wæron wynsume. Eode Wealhþeow forð,
with winsome words. Came Wealhtheow forth,
613cwen Hroðgares, cynna gemyndig,
queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,
614grette goldhroden guman on healle,
gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;
615ond þa freolic wif ful gesealde
and the high-born lady handed the cup
616ærest Eastdena eþelwearde,
first to the East-Danes' heir and warden,
617bæd hine bliðne æt þære beorþege,
bade him be blithe at the beer-carouse,
618leodum leofne. He on lust geþeah
the land's beloved one. Lustily took he
619symbel ond seleful, sigerof kyning.
banquet and beaker, battle-famed king.
620Ymbeode þa ides Helminga
Through the hall then went the Helmings' Lady,
621duguþe ond geogoþe dæl æghwylcne,
to younger and older everywhere
622sincfato sealde, oþþæt sæl alamp
carried the cup, till come the moment
623þæt hio Beowulfe, beaghroden cwen
when the ring-graced queen, the royal-hearted,
624mode geþungen, medoful ætbær;
to Beowulf bore the beaker of mead.
625grette Geata leod, gode þancode
She greeted the Geats' lord, God she thanked,
626wisfæst wordum þæs ðe hire se willa gelamp
in wisdom's words, that her will was granted,
627þæt heo on ænigne eorl gelyfde
that at last on a hero her hope could lean
628fyrena frofre. He þæt ful geþeah,
for comfort in terrors. The cup he took,
629wælreow wiga, æt Wealhþeon,
hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow's hand,
630ond þa gyddode guþe gefysed;
and answer uttered the eager-for-combat.
631Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes:
Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--
632Ic þæt hogode, þa ic on holm gestah,
"This was my thought, when my thanes and I
633sæbat gesæt mid minre secga gedriht,
bent to the ocean and entered our boat,
634þæt ic anunga eowra leoda
that I would work the will of your people
635willan geworhte oþðe on wæl crunge,
fully, or fighting fall in death,
636feondgrapum fæst. Ic gefremman sceal
in fiend's gripe fast. I am firm to do
637eorlic ellen, oþðe endedæg
an earl's brave deed, or end the days
638on þisse meoduhealle minne gebidan.
of this life of mine in the mead-hall here."
639ðam wife þa word wel licodon,
Well these words to the woman seemed,
640gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden
Beowulf's battle-boast. -- Bright with gold
641freolicu folccwen to hire frean/ sittan.
the stately dame by her spouse sat down.
642þa wæs eft swa ær inne on healle
Again, as erst, began in hall
643þryðword sprecen, ðeod on sælum,
warriors' wassail and words of power,
644sigefolca sweg, oþþæt semninga
the proud-band's revel, till presently
645sunu Healfdenes secean wolde
the son of Healfdene hastened to seek
646æfenræste; wiste þæm ahlæcan
rest for the night; he knew there waited
647to þæm heahsele hilde geþinged,
fight for the fiend in that festal hall,
648siððan hie sunnan leoht geseon ne/ meahton,
when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,
649oðþe nipende niht ofer ealle,
and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,
650scaduhelma gesceapu scriðan cwoman,
and shadowy shapes came striding on,
651wan under wolcnum. Werod eall aras.
wan under welkin. The warriors rose.
652Gegrette/ þa guma oþerne,
Man to man, he made harangue,
653Hroðgar Beowulf, ond him hæl abead,
Hrothgar to Beowulf, bade him hail,
654winærnes geweald, ond þæt word acwæð:
let him wield the wine hall: a word he added:--
655Næfre ic ænegum men ær alyfde,
"Never to any man erst I trusted,
656siþðan ic hond ond rond hebban mihte,
since I could heave up hand and shield,
657ðryþærn Dena buton þe nu ða.
this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.
658Hafa nu ond geheald husa selest,
Have now and hold this house unpeered;
659gemyne mærþo, mægenellen cyð,
remember thy glory; thy might declare;
660waca wið wraþum. Ne bið þe wilna gad,
watch for the foe! No wish shall fail thee
661gif þu þæt ellenweorc aldre gedigest.
if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life."
662ða him Hroþgar gewat mid his hæleþa gedryht,
THEN Hrothgar went with his hero-train,
663eodur Scyldinga, ut of healle;
defence-of-Scyldings, forth from hall;
664wolde wigfruma Wealhþeo secan,
fain would the war-lord Wealhtheow seek,
665cwen to gebeddan. Hæfde kyningwuldor
couch of his queen. The King-of-Glory
666Grendle togeanes, swa guman gefrungon,
against this Grendel a guard had set,
667seleweard aseted; sundornytte beheold
so heroes heard, a hall-defender,
668ymb aldor Dena, eotonweard abead.
who warded the monarch and watched for the monster.
669Huru Geata leod georne truwode
In truth, the Geats' prince gladly trusted
670modgan mægnes, metodes hyldo.
his mettle, his might, the mercy of God!
671ða he him of dyde isernbyrnan,
Cast off then his corselet of iron,
672helm of hafelan, sealde his hyrsted sweord,
helmet from head; to his henchman gave, --
673irena cyst, ombihtþegne,
choicest of weapons, -- the well-chased sword,
674ond gehealdan het hildegeatwe.
bidding him guard the gear of battle.
675Gespræc þa se goda gylpworda sum,
Spake then his Vaunt the valiant man,
676Beowulf Geata, ær he on bed stige:
Beowulf Geat, ere the bed be sought:--
677No ic me an herewæsmun hnagran talige,
"Of force in fight no feebler I count me,
678guþgeweorca, þonne Grendel hine;
in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him.
679forþan ic hine sweorde swebban nelle,
Not with the sword, then, to sleep of death
680aldre beneotan, þeah ic eal mæge.
his life will I give, though it lie in my power.
681Nat he þara goda þæt he me ongean slea,
No skill is his to strike against me,
682rand geheawe, þeah ðe he rof sie
my shield to hew though he hardy be,
683niþgeweorca; ac wit on niht sculon
bold in battle; we both, this night,
684secge ofersittan, gif he/ gesecean dear
shall spurn the sword, if he seek me here,
685wig ofer wæpen, ond siþðan witig god
unweaponed, for war. Let wisest God,
686on swa hwæþere hond, halig dryhten,
sacred Lord, on which side soever
687mærðo deme, swa him gemet þince.
doom decree as he deemeth right."
688Hylde hine þa heaþodeor, hleorbolster onfeng
Reclined then the chieftain, and cheek-pillows held
689eorles andwlitan, ond hine ymb monig
the head of the earl, while all about him
690snellic særinc selereste gebeah.
seamen hardy on hall-beds sank.
691Nænig heora þohte þæt he þanon scolde
None of them thought that thence their steps
692eft eardlufan æfre gesecean,
to the folk and fastness that fostered them,
693folc oþðe freoburh, þær he afeded wæs;
to the land they loved, would lead them back!
694ac hie hæfdon gefrunen þæt hie ær to fela micles
Full well they wist that on warriors many
695in þæm winsele wældeað fornam,
battle-death seized, in the banquet-hall,
696Denigea leode. Ac him dryhten forgeaf
of Danish clan. But comfort and help,
697wigspeda gewiofu, Wedera leodum,
war-weal weaving, to Weder folk
698frofor ond fultum/, þæt/ hie/ feond heora
the Master gave, that, by might of one,
699ðurh anes cræft ealle ofercomon,
over their enemy all prevailed,
700selfes mihtum. Soð is gecyþed
by single strength. In sooth 'tis told
701þæt mihtig god manna cynnes
that highest God o'er human kind
702weold wideferhð/. Com on wanre niht
hath wielded ever! -- Thro' wan night striding,
703scriðan sceadugenga. Sceotend swæfon,
came the walker-in-shadow. Warriors slept
704þa þæt hornreced healdan scoldon,
whose hest was to guard the gabled hall, --
705ealle buton anum. þæt wæs yldum cuþ
all save one. 'Twas widely known
706þæt hie ne moste, þa metod nolde,
that against God's will the ghostly ravager
707se scynscaþa/ under sceadu bregdan;
him could not hurl to haunts of darkness;
708ac he wæccende wraþum on andan
wakeful, ready, with warrior's wrath,
709bad bolgenmod beadwa geþinges.
bold he bided the battle's issue.
710ða com of more under misthleoþum
THEN from the moorland, by misty crags,
711Grendel gongan, godes yrre bær;
with God's wrath laden, Grendel came.
712mynte se manscaða manna cynnes
The monster was minded of mankind now
713sumne besyrwan/ in sele þam hean.
sundry to seize in the stately house.
714Wod under wolcnum/ to þæs þe he winreced,
Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace there,
715goldsele gumena, gearwost wisse,
gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned,
716fættum fahne. Ne wæs þæt forma sið
flashing with fretwork. Not first time, this,
717þæt he Hroþgares ham gesohte;
that he the home of Hrothgar sought, --
718næfre he on aldordagum ær ne/ siþðan
yet ne'er in his life-day, late or early,
719heardran hæle, healðegnas fand.
such hardy heroes, such hall-thanes, found!
720Com þa to recede rinc siðian,
To the house the warrior walked apace,
721dreamum bedæled. Duru sona onarn/,
parted from peace; the portal opended,
722fyrbendum fæst, syþðan he hire folmum æthran/;
though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had struck it,
723onbræd þa bealohydig, ða he/ gebolgen/ wæs,
and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,
724recedes muþan. Raþe æfter þon
the house's mouth. All hastily, then,
725on fagne flor feond treddode,
o'er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,
726eode yrremod; him of eagum stod
ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyes
727ligge gelicost leoht unfæger.
fearful flashes, like flame to see.
728Geseah he in recede rinca manige,
He spied in hall the hero-band,
729swefan sibbegedriht samod ætgædere,
kin and clansmen clustered asleep,
730magorinca heap. þa his mod ahlog;
hardy liegemen. Then laughed his heart;
731mynte þæt he gedælde, ærþon dæg cwome,
for the monster was minded, ere morn should dawn,
732atol aglæca, anra gehwylces
savage, to sever the soul of each,
733lif wið lice, þa him alumpen wæs
life from body, since lusty banquet
734wistfylle wen. Ne wæs þæt/ wyrd þa gen
waited his will! But Wyrd forbade him
735þæt he ma moste manna cynnes
to seize any more of men on earth
736ðicgean ofer þa niht. þryðswyð beheold
after that evening. Eagerly watched
737mæg Higelaces, hu se manscaða
Hygelac's kinsman his cursed foe,
738under færgripum gefaran wolde.
how he would fare in fell attack.
739Ne þæt se aglæca yldan þohte,
Not that the monster was minded to pause!
740ac he gefeng hraðe forman siðe
Straightway he seized a sleeping warrior
741slæpendne rinc, slat unwearnum,
for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,
742bat banlocan, blod edrum dranc,
the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,
743synsnædum swealh; sona hæfde
swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thus
744unlyfigendes eal gefeormod,
the lifeless corse was clear devoured,
745fet ond folma. Forð near ætstop,
e'en feet and hands. Then farther he hied;
746nam þa mid handa higeþihtigne
for the hardy hero with hand he grasped,
747rinc on ræste, ræhte ongean
felt for the foe with fiendish claw,
748feond mid folme; he onfeng hraþe
for the hero reclining, -- who clutched it boldly,
749inwitþancum ond wið earm gesæt.
prompt to answer, propped on his arm.
750Sona þæt onfunde fyrena hyrde
Soon then saw that shepherd-of-evils
751þæt he ne mette middangeardes,
that never he met in this middle-world,
752eorþan sceata/, on elran men
in the ways of earth, another wight
753mundgripe maran. He on mode wearð
with heavier hand-gripe; at heart he feared,
754forht on ferhðe; no þy ær fram meahte.
sorrowed in soul, -- none the sooner escaped!
755Hyge wæs him hinfus, wolde on heolster fleon,
Fain would he flee, his fastness seek,
756secan deofla gedræg; ne wæs his drohtoð þær
the den of devils: no doings now
757swylce he on ealderdagum ær gemette.
such as oft he had done in days of old!
758Gemunde þa se goda, mæg Higelaces,
Then bethought him the hardy Hygelac-thane
759æfenspræce, uplang astod
of his boast at evening: up he bounded,
760ond him fæste wiðfeng; fingras burston.
grasped firm his foe, whose fingers cracked.
761Eoten wæs utweard; eorl furþur stop.
The fiend made off, but the earl close followed.
762Mynte se mæra, þær/ he meahte swa,
The monster meant -- if he might at all --
763widre gewindan ond on weg þanon
to fling himself free, and far away
764fleon on fenhopu; wiste his/ fingra geweald
fly to the fens, -- knew his fingers' power
765on grames grapum. þæt/ wæs geocor sið
in the gripe of the grim one. Gruesome march
766þæt se hearmscaþa to Heorute ateah.
to Heorot this monster of harm had made!
767Dryhtsele dynede; Denum eallum wearð,
Din filled the room; the Danes were bereft,
768ceasterbuendum, cenra gehwylcum,
castle-dwellers and clansmen all,
769eorlum ealuscerwen. Yrre wæron begen,
earls, of their ale. Angry were both
770reþe renweardas. Reced hlynsode.
those savage hall-guards: the house resounded.
771þa wæs wundor micel þæt se winsele
Wonder it was the wine-hall firm
772wiðhæfde heaþodeorum, þæt he on hrusan ne feol,
in the strain of their struggle stood, to earth
773fæger foldbold; ac he þæs fæste wæs
the fair house fell not; too fast it was
774innan ond utan irenbendum
within and without by its iron bands
775searoþoncum besmiþod. þær fram sylle abeag
craftily clamped; though there crashed from sill
776medubenc monig, mine gefræge,
many a mead-bench -- men have told me --
777golde geregnad, þær þa graman wunnon.
gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.
778þæs ne wendon ær witan Scyldinga
So well had weened the wisest Scyldings
779þæt hit a mid gemete manna ænig,
that not ever at all might any man
780betlic/ ond banfag, tobrecan meahte,
that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,
781listum tolucan, nymþe liges fæþm
crush by craft, -- unless clasp of fire
782swulge on swaþule. Sweg up astag
in smoke engulfed it. -- Again uprose
783niwe geneahhe; Norðdenum stod
din redoubled. Danes of the North
784atelic egesa, anra gehwylcum
with fear and frenzy were filled, each one,
785þara þe of wealle wop gehyrdon,
who from the wall that wailing heard,
786gryreleoð galan godes ondsacan,
God's foe sounding his grisly song,
787sigeleasne sang, sar wanigean
cry of the conquered, clamorous pain
788helle hæfton. Heold hine fæste
from captive of hell. Too closely held him
789se þe manna wæs mægene strengest
he who of men in might was strongest
790on þæm dæge þysses lifes.
in that same day of this our life.
791Nolde eorla hleo ænige þinga
NOT in any wise would the earls'-defence
792þone cwealmcuman cwicne forlætan,
suffer that slaughterous stranger to live,
793ne his lifdagas leoda ænigum/
useless deeming his days and years
794nytte tealde. þær genehost brægd
to men on earth. Now many an earl
795eorl Beowulfes ealde lafe,
of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,
796wolde freadrihtnes feorh ealgian,
fain the life of their lord to shield,
797mæres þeodnes, ðær hie meahton swa.
their praised prince, if power were theirs;
798Hie þæt ne wiston, þa hie gewin drugon,
never they knew, -- as they neared the foe,
hardy-hearted heroes of war,
800ond on healfa gehwone heawan þohton,
aiming their swords on every side
801sawle secan, þone synscaðan
the accursed to kill, -- no keenest blade,
802ænig ofer eorþan irenna cyst,
no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,
803guðbilla nan, gretan nolde,
could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!
804ac he sigewæpnum forsworen hæfde,
He was safe, by his spells, from sword of battle,
805ecga gehwylcre. Scolde his aldorgedal
from edge of iron. Yet his end and parting
806on ðæm dæge þysses lifes
on that same day of this our life
807earmlic wurðan, ond se ellorgast
woful should be, and his wandering soul
808on feonda geweald feor siðian.
far off flit to the fiends' domain.
809ða þæt onfunde se þe fela æror
Soon he found, who in former days,
810modes myrðe manna cynne,
harmful in heart and hated of God,
811fyrene gefremede he wæs/ fag wið god,
on many a man such murder wrought,
812þæt him se lichoma læstan nolde/,
that the frame of his body failed him now.
813ac hine se modega mæg Hygelaces
For him the keen-souled kinsman of Hygelac
814hæfde be honda; wæs gehwæþer oðrum
held in hand; hateful alive
815lifigende lað. Licsar gebad
was each to other. The outlaw dire
816atol æglæca; him on eaxle wearð
took mortal hurt; a mighty wound
817syndolh sweotol, seonowe onsprungon,
showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,
818burston banlocan. Beowulfe wearð
and the bone-frame burst. To Beowulf now
819guðhreð gyfeþe; scolde Grendel þonan
the glory was given, and Grendel thence
820feorhseoc fleon under fenhleoðu,
death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,
821secean wynleas wic; wiste þe geornor
noisome abode: he knew too well
822þæt his aldres wæs ende gegongen,
that here was the last of life, an end
823dogera dægrim. Denum eallum wearð
of his days on earth. -- To all the Danes
824æfter þam wælræse willa gelumpen.
by that bloody battle the boon had come.
825Hæfde þa gefælsod se þe ær feorran com,
From ravage had rescued the roving stranger
826snotor ond swyðferhð, sele Hroðgares,
Hrothgar's hall; the hardy and wise one
827genered wið niðe; nihtweorce gefeh,
had purged it anew. His night-work pleased him,
828ellenmærþum/. Hæfde Eastdenum
his deed and its honor. To Eastern Danes
829Geatmecga leod gilp gelæsted,
had the valiant Geat his vaunt made good,
830swylce oncyþðe ealle gebette,
all their sorrow and ills assuaged,
831inwidsorge, þe hie ær drugon
their bale of battle borne so long,
832ond for þreanydum þolian scoldon,
and all the dole they erst endured
833torn unlytel. þæt wæs tacen sweotol,
pain a-plenty. -- 'Twas proof of this,
834syþðan hildedeor hond alegde,
when the hardy-in-fight a hand laid down,
835earm ond eaxle þær wæs eal geador
arm and shoulder, -- all, indeed,
836Grendles grape under geapne hrof/.
of Grendel's gripe, -- 'neath the gabled roof
837ða wæs on morgen mine gefræge
MANY at morning, as men have told me,
838ymb þa gifhealle guðrinc monig;
warriors gathered the gift-hall round,
839ferdon folctogan feorran ond nean
folk-leaders faring from far and near,
840geond widwegas wundor sceawian,
o'er wide-stretched ways, the wonder to view,
841laþes lastas. No his lifgedal
trace of the traitor. Not troublous seemed
842sarlic þuhte secga ænegum
the enemy's end to any man
843þara þe tirleases trode sceawode,
who saw by the gait of the graceless foe
844hu he werigmod on weg þanon,
how the weary-hearted, away from thence,
845niða ofercumen, on nicera mere
baffled in battle and banned, his steps
846fæge ond geflymed feorhlastas bær.
death-marked dragged to the devils' mere.
847ðær wæs on blode brim weallende,
Bloody the billows were boiling there,
848atol yða geswing eal gemenged
turbid the tide of tumbling waves
849haton heolfre, heorodreore weol.
horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,
850Deaðfæge deog, siððan dreama leas
by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moor
851in fenfreoðo feorh alegde,
laid forlorn his life adown,
852hæþene/ sawle; þær him hel onfeng.
his heathen soul,-and hell received it.
853þanon eft gewiton ealdgesiðas,
Home then rode the hoary clansmen
854swylce geong manig of gomenwaþe
from that merry journey, and many a youth,
855fram mere modge mearum ridan,
on horses white, the hardy warriors,
856beornas on blancum. ðær wæs Beowulfes
back from the mere. Then Beowulf's glory
857mærðo mæned; monig oft gecwæð
eager they echoed, and all averred
858þætte suð ne norð be sæm tweonum
that from sea to sea, or south or north,
859ofer eormengrund oþer nænig
there was no other in earth's domain,
860under swegles begong selra nære
under vault of heaven, more valiant found,
861rondhæbbendra, rices wyrðra.
of warriors none more worthy to rule!
862Ne hie huru winedrihten wiht ne logon,
(On their lord beloved they laid no slight,
863glædne Hroðgar, ac þæt wæs god cyning.
gracious Hrothgar: a good king he!)
864Hwilum heaþorofe hleapan leton,
From time to time, the tried-in-battle
865on geflit faran fealwe mearas
their gray steeds set to gallop amain,
866ðær him foldwegas fægere þuhton,
and ran a race when the road seemed fair.
867cystum cuðe/. Hwilum cyninges þegn,
From time to time, a thane of the king,
868guma gilphlæden, gidda gemyndig,
who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,
869se ðe ealfela ealdgesegena
stored with sagas and songs of old,
870worn gemunde, word oþer fand
bound word to word in well-knit rime,
871soðe gebunden; secg eft ongan
welded his lay; this warrior soon
872sið Beowulfes snyttrum styrian
of Beowulf's quest right cleverly sang,
873ond on sped wrecan spel gerade,
and artfully added an excellent tale,
874wordum wrixlan. Welhwylc gecwæð
in well-ranged words, of the warlike deeds
875þæt he fram Sigemundes/ secgan hyrde
he had heard in saga of Sigemund.
876ellendædum, uncuþes fela,
Strange the story: he said it all, --
877Wælsinges gewin, wide siðas,
the Waelsing's wanderings wide, his struggles,
878þara þe gumena bearn gearwe ne wiston,
which never were told to tribes of men,
879fæhðe ond fyrena, buton Fitela mid hine,
the feuds and the frauds, save to Fitela only,
880þonne he swulces hwæt secgan wolde,
when of these doings he deigned to speak,
881eam his nefan, swa hie a wæron
uncle to nephew; as ever the twain
882æt niða gehwam nydgesteallan;
stood side by side in stress of war,
883hæfdon ealfela eotena cynnes
and multitude of the monster kind
884sweordum gesæged. Sigemunde gesprong
they had felled with their swords. Of Sigemund grew,
885æfter deaðdæge dom unlytel,
when he passed from life, no little praise;
886syþðan wiges heard wyrm acwealde,
for the doughty-in-combat a dragon killed
887hordes hyrde. He under harne stan,
that herded the hoard: under hoary rock
888æþelinges bearn, ana geneðde
the atheling dared the deed alone
889frecne dæde, ne wæs him Fitela mid.
fearful quest, nor was Fitela there.
890hwæþre him gesælde ðæt þæt swurd þurhwod
Yet so it befell, his falchion pierced
891wrætlicne wyrm, þæt hit on wealle ætstod,
that wondrous worm, -- on the wall it struck,
892dryhtlic iren; draca morðre swealt.
best blade; the dragon died in its blood.
893Hæfde aglæca elne gegongen
Thus had the dread-one by daring achieved
894þæt he beahhordes brucan moste
over the ring-hoard to rule at will,
895selfes dome; sæbat gehleod,
himself to pleasure; a sea-boat he loaded,
896bær on bearm scipes beorhte frætwa,
and bore on its bosom the beaming gold,
897Wælses eafera. Wyrm hat gemealt.
son of Waels; the worm was consumed.
898Se wæs wreccena wide mærost
He had of all heroes the highest renown
899ofer werþeode, wigendra hleo,
among races of men, this refuge-of-warriors,
900ellendædum he þæs ær onðah,
for deeds of daring that decked his name
901siððan Heremodes hild sweðrode,
since the hand and heart of Heremod
902eafoð/ ond ellen. He mid Eotenum wearð
grew slack in battle. He, swiftly banished
903on feonda geweald forð forlacen,
to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,
904snude forsended. Hine sorhwylmas
to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrow
905lemede to lange; he his leodum wearð,
had lamed him too long; a load of care
906eallum æþellingum to aldorceare;
to earls and athelings all he proved.
907swylce oft bemearn ærran mælum
Oft indeed, in earlier days,
908swiðferhþes sið snotor ceorl monig,
for the warrior's wayfaring wise men mourned,
909se þe him bealwa to bote gelyfde,
who had hoped of him help from harm and bale,
910þæt þæt ðeodnes bearn geþeon scolde,
and had thought their sovran's son would thrive,
911fæderæþelum onfon, folc gehealdan,
follow his father, his folk protect,
912hord ond hleoburh, hæleþa rice,
the hoard and the stronghold, heroes' land,
913//eþel// Scyldinga. He þær eallum wearð,
home of Scyldings. -- But here, thanes said,
914mæg Higelaces, manna cynne,
the kinsman of Hygelac kinder seemed
915freondum gefægra; hine fyren onwod.
to all: the other was urged to crime!
916Hwilum flitende fealwe stræte
And afresh to the race, the fallow roads
917mearum mæton. ða wæs morgenleoht
by swift steeds measured! The morning sun
918scofen ond scynded. Eode scealc monig
was climbing higher. Clansmen hastened
919swiðhicgende to sele þam hean
to the high-built hall, those hardy-minded,
920searowundor seon; swylce self cyning
the wonder to witness. Warden of treasure,
921of brydbure, beahhorda weard,
crowned with glory, the king himself,
922tryddode tirfæst getrume micle,
with stately band from the bride-bower strode;
923cystum gecyþed, ond his cwen mid him
and with him the queen and her crowd of maidens
924medostigge mæt mægþa hose.
measured the path to the mead-house fair.
925Hroðgar maþelode he to healle geong,
HROTHGAR spake, -- to the hall he went,
926stod on stapole, geseah steapne hrof,
stood by the steps, the steep roof saw,
927golde fahne, ond Grendles hond:
garnished with gold, and Grendel's hand:--
928ðisse ansyne alwealdan þanc
"For the sight I see to the Sovran Ruler
929lungre gelimpe. Fela ic laþes gebad,
be speedy thanks! A throng of sorrows
930grynna æt Grendle; a mæg god wyrcan
I have borne from Grendel; but God still works
931wunder æfter wundre, wuldres hyrde.
wonder on wonder, the Warden-of-Glory.
932ðæt wæs ungeara þæt ic ænigra me
It was but now that I never more
933weana ne wende to widan feore
for woes that weighed on me waited help
934bote gebidan, þonne blode fah
long as I lived, when, laved in blood,
935husa selest heorodreorig stod,
stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house, --
936wea widscofen witena gehwylcum/
widespread woe for wise men all,
937ðara þe ne wendon þæt hie wideferhð
who had no hope to hinder ever
938leoda landgeweorc laþum beweredon
foes infernal and fiendish sprites
939scuccum ond scinnum. Nu scealc hafað
from havoc in hall. This hero now,
940þurh drihtnes miht dæd gefremede ðe
by the Wielder's might, a work has done
941we ealle ær/ ne meahton
that not all of us erst could ever do
942snyttrum besyrwan. Hwæt, þæt secgan mæg
by wile and wisdom. Lo, well can she say
943efne swa hwylc mægþa swa ðone magan cende
whoso of women this warrior bore
944æfter gumcynnum, gyf heo gyt lyfað,
among sons of men, if still she liveth,
945þæt hyre ealdmetod este wære
that the God of the ages was good to her
946bearngebyrdo. Nu ic, Beowulf, þec,
in the birth of her bairn. Now, Beowulf, thee,
947secg betsta, me/ for sunu wylle
of heroes best, I shall heartily love
948freogan on ferhþe; heald forð tela
as mine own, my son; preserve thou ever
949niwe sibbe. Ne bið þe nænigra/ gad
this kinship new: thou shalt never lack
950worolde wilna, þe ic geweald hæbbe.
wealth of the world that I wield as mine!
951Ful oft ic for læssan lean teohhode,
Full oft for less have I largess showered,
952hordweorþunge hnahran rince,
my precious hoard, on a punier man,
953sæmran æt sæcce. þu þe self hafast
less stout in struggle. Thyself hast now
954dædum gefremed þæt þin dom/ lyfað
fulfilled such deeds, that thy fame shall endure
955awa to aldre. Alwalda þec
through all the ages. As ever he did,
956gode forgylde, swa he nu gyt dyde.
well may the Wielder reward thee still!"
957Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecþeowes:
Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--
958We þæt ellenweorc estum miclum,
"This work of war most willingly
959feohtan fremedon, frecne geneðdon
we have fought, this fight, and fearlessly dared
960eafoð uncuþes. Uþe ic swiþor
force of the foe. Fain, too, were I
961þæt ðu hine selfne geseon moste,
hadst thou but seen himself, what time
962feond on frætewum fylwerigne.
the fiend in his trappings tottered to fall!
963Ic hine/ hrædlice heardan clammum
Swiftly, I thought, in strongest gripe
964on wælbedde wriþan þohte,
on his bed of death to bind him down,
965þæt he for mundgripe/ minum scolde
that he in the hent of this hand of mine
966licgean lifbysig, butan his lic swice.
should breathe his last: but he broke away.
967Ic hine ne mihte, þa metod nolde,
Him I might not -- the Maker willed not --
968ganges getwæman, no ic him þæs georne ætfealh,
hinder from flight, and firm enough hold
969feorhgeniðlan; wæs to foremihtig
the life-destroyer: too sturdy was he,
970feond on feþe. Hwæþere he his folme forlet
the ruthless, in running! For rescue, however,
971to lifwraþe last weardian,
he left behind him his hand in pledge,
972earm ond eaxle. No þær ænige swa þeah
arm and shoulder; nor aught of help
973feasceaft guma frofre gebohte;
could the cursed one thus procure at all.
974no þy leng leofað/ laðgeteona,
None the longer liveth he, loathsome fiend,
975synnum geswenced, ac hyne sar hafað
sunk in his sins, but sorrow holds him
976mid/ nydgripe/ nearwe befongen,
tightly grasped in gripe of anguish,
977balwon bendum. ðær abidan sceal
in baleful bonds, where bide he must,
978maga mane fah miclan domes,
evil outlaw, such awful doom
979hu him scir metod scrifan wille.
as the Mighty Maker shall mete him out."
980ða wæs swigra secg, sunu Eclafes,
More silent seemed the son of Ecglaf
981on gylpspræce guðgeweorca,
in boastful speech of his battle-deeds,
982siþðan æþelingas eorles cræfte
since athelings all, through the earl's great prowess,
983ofer heanne hrof hand sceawedon,
beheld that hand, on the high roof gazing,
984feondes fingras. Foran æghwylc wæs,
foeman's fingers, -- the forepart of each
985stiðra/ nægla gehwylc, style gelicost,
of the sturdy nails to steel was likest, --
986hæþenes handsporu hilderinces/,
heathen's "hand-spear," hostile warrior's
987egl, unheoru. æghwylc gecwæð
claw uncanny. 'Twas clear, they said,
988þæt him heardra nan hrinan wolde
that him no blade of the brave could touch,
989iren ærgod, þæt ðæs ahlæcan
how keen soever, or cut away
990blodge beadufolme onberan wolde.
that battle-hand bloody from baneful foe.
991ða wæs haten hreþe Heort innanweard
THERE was hurry and hest in Heorot now
992folmum gefrætwod. Fela þæra wæs,
for hands to bedeck it, and dense was the throng
993wera ond wifa, þe þæt winreced,
of men and women the wine-hall to cleanse,
994gestsele gyredon. Goldfag scinon
the guest-room to garnish. Gold-gay shone the hangings
995web æfter wagum, wundorsiona fela
that were wove on the wall, and wonders many
996secga gehwylcum þara þe on swylc starað.
to delight each mortal that looks upon them.
997Wæs þæt beorhte bold tobrocen swiðe,
Though braced within by iron bands,
998eal inneweard irenbendum fæst,
that building bright was broken sorely;
999heorras tohlidene. Hrof ana genæs,
rent were its hinges; the roof alone
1000ealles ansund, þe se aglæca,
held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,
1001fyrendædum fag, on fleam gewand,
the fiendish foe his flight essayed,
1002aldres orwena. No þæt yðe byð
of life despairing. -- No light thing that,
1003to befleonne, fremme se þe wille,
the flight for safety, -- essay it who will!
1004ac gesecan/ sceal sawlberendra,
Forced of fate, he shall find his way
1005nyde genydde, niþða bearna,
to the refuge ready for race of man,
1006grundbuendra gearwe stowe,
for soul-possessors, and sons of earth;
1007þær his lichoma legerbedde fæst
and there his body on bed of death
1008swefeþ æfter symle. þa wæs sæl ond mæl
shall rest after revel. Arrived was the hour
1009þæt to healle gang Healfdenes sunu;
when to hall proceeded Healfdene's son:
1010wolde self cyning symbel þicgan.
the king himself would sit to banquet.
1011Ne gefrægen ic þa mægþe maran weorode
Ne'er heard I of host in haughtier throng
1012ymb hyra sincgyfan sel gebæran.
more graciously gathered round giver-of-rings!
1013Bugon þa to bence blædagande,
Bowed then to bench those bearers-of-glory,
1014fylle gefægon; fægere geþægon
fain of the feasting. Featly received
1015medoful manig magas þara
many a mead-cup the mighty-in-spirit,
1016swiðhicgende/ on sele þam hean,
kinsmen who sat in the sumptuous hall,
1017Hroðgar ond Hroþulf. Heorot innan wæs
Hrothgar and Hrothulf. Heorot now
1018freondum afylled; nalles facenstafas
was filled with friends; the folk of Scyldings
1019|eodscyldingas þenden fremedon.
ne'er yet had tried the traitor's deed.
1020Forgeaf þa Beowulfe bearn/ Healfdenes
To Beowulf gave the bairn of Healfdene
1021segen gyldenne sigores to leane;
a gold-wove banner, guerdon of triumph,
1022hroden hildecumbor, helm ond byrnan,
broidered battle-flag, breastplate and helmet;
1023mære maðþumsweord manige gesawon
and a splendid sword was seen of many
1024beforan beorn beran. Beowulf geþah
borne to the brave one. Beowulf took
1025ful on flette; no he þære feohgyfte
cup in hall: for such costly gifts
1026for sceotendum/ scamigan ðorfte.
he suffered no shame in that soldier throng.
1027Ne gefrægn ic freondlicor feower madmas
For I heard of few heroes, in heartier mood,
1028golde gegyrede gummanna fela
with four such gifts, so fashioned with gold,
1029in ealobence oðrum gesellan.
on the ale-bench honoring others thus!
1030Ymb þæs helmes hrof heafodbeorge
O'er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,
1031wirum bewunden walu/ utan heold,
wound with wires, kept ward o'er the head,
1032þæt him fela laf frecne ne meahton
lest the relict-of-files should fierce invade,
1033scurheard sceþðan, þonne scyldfreca
sharp in the strife, when that shielded hero
1034ongean gramum gangan scolde.
should go to grapple against his foes.
1035Heht ða eorla hleo eahta mearas
Then the earls'-defence on the floor bade lead
1036fætedhleore on flet teon,
coursers eight, with carven head-gear,
1037in/ under eoderas. þara anum stod
adown the hall: one horse was decked
1038sadol searwum fah, since gewurþad;
with a saddle all shining and set in jewels;
1039þæt wæs hildesetl heahcyninges,
'twas the battle-seat of the best of kings,
1040ðonne sweorda gelac sunu Healfdenes
when to play of swords the son of Healfdene
1041efnan wolde. Næfre on ore læg
was fain to fare. Ne'er failed his valor
1042widcuþes wig, ðonne walu feollon.
in the crush of combat when corpses fell.
1043Ond ða Beowulfe bega gehwæþres
To Beowulf over them both then gave
1044eodor Ingwina onweald geteah,
the refuge-of-Ingwines right and power,
1045wicga ond wæpna, het hine wel brucan.
o'er war-steeds and weapons: wished him joy of them.
1046Swa manlice mære þeoden,
Manfully thus the mighty prince,
1047hordweard hæleþa, heaþoræsas geald
hoard-guard for heroes, that hard fight repaid
1048mearum ond madmum, swa hy næfre man lyhð,
with steeds and treasures contemned by none
1049se þe secgan wile soð æfter rihte.
who is willing to say the sooth aright.
1050ða gyt æghwylcum eorla drihten
AND the lord of earls, to each that came
1051þara þe mid Beowulfe brimlade/ teah
with Beowulf over the briny ways,
1052on þære medubence maþðum gesealde,
an heirloom there at the ale-bench gave,
1053yrfelafe, ond þone ænne heht
precious gift; and the price bade pay
1054golde forgyldan, þone ðe Grendel ær
in gold for him whom Grendel erst
1055mane acwealde, swa he hyra ma wolde,
murdered, -- and fain of them more had killed,
1056nefne him witig god wyrd forstode
had not wisest God their Wyrd averted,
1057ond ðæs mannes mod. Metod eallum weold
and the man's brave mood. The Maker then
1058gumena cynnes, swa he nu git deð.
ruled human kind, as here and now.
1059Forþan bið andgit æghwær selest,
Therefore is insight always best,
1060ferhðes foreþanc. Fela sceal gebidan
and forethought of mind. How much awaits him
1061leofes ond laþes se þe longe her
of lief and of loath, who long time here,
1062on ðyssum windagum worolde bruceð.
through days of warfare this world endures!
1063þær wæs sang ond sweg samod ætgædere
Then song and music mingled sounds
1064fore Healfdenes hildewisan,
in the presence of Healfdene's head-of-armies
1065gomenwudu greted, gid oft wrecen,
and harping was heard with the hero-lay
1066ðonne healgamen Hroþgares scop
as Hrothgar's singer the hall-joy woke
1067æfter medobence mænan scolde
along the mead-seats, making his song
1068be/ Finnes eaferum, ða hie se fær begeat,
of that sudden raid on the sons of Finn.
1069hæleð Healfdena, Hnæf Scyldinga,
Healfdene's hero, Hnaef the Scylding,
1070in Freswæle feallan scolde.
was fated to fall in the Frisian slaughter.
1071Ne huru Hildeburh herian þorfte
Hildeburh needed not hold in value
1072Eotena treowe; unsynnum wearð
her enemies' honor! Innocent both
1073beloren leofum æt þam lindplegan/,
were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,
1074bearnum ond broðrum; hie on gebyrd hruron,
bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,
1075gare wunde. þæt wæs geomuru ides.
stricken by spears; 'twas a sorrowful woman!
1076Nalles holinga Hoces dohtor
None doubted why the daughter of Hoc
1077meotodsceaft bemearn, syþðan/ morgen com,
bewailed her doom when dawning came,
1078ða heo under swegle geseon meahte
and under the sky she saw them lying,
1079morþorbealo maga, þær heo ær mæste heold
kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned
1080worolde wynne. Wig ealle fornam
of the sweets of the world! By war were swept, too,
1081Finnes þegnas nemne feaum anum,
Finn's own liegemen, and few were left;
1082þæt he ne mehte on þæm meðelstede
in the parleying-place he could ply no longer
1083wig Hengeste wiht gefeohtan,
weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest,
1084ne þa wealafe wige forþringan
and rescue his remnant by right of arms
1085þeodnes ðegna/. ac hig him geþingo budon,
from the prince's thane. A pact he offered:
1086þæt hie him oðer flet eal gerymdon,
another dwelling the Danes should have,
1087healle ond heahsetl, þæt hie healfre geweald
hall and high-seat, and half the power
1088wið Eotena bearn agan moston,
should fall to them in Frisian land;
1089ond æt feohgyftum Folcwaldan sunu
and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald's son
1090dogra gehwylce Dene weorþode,
day by day the Danes should honor,
1091Hengestes heap hringum wenede
the folk of Hengest favor with rings,
1092efne swa swiðe sincgestreonum
even as truly, with treasure and jewels,
1093fættan goldes, swa he Fresena cyn
with fretted gold, as his Frisian kin
1094on beorsele byldan wolde.
he meant to honor in ale-hall there.
1095ða hie getruwedon on twa healfa
Pact of peace they plighted further
1096fæste frioðuwære. Fin Hengeste
on both sides firmly. Finn to Hengest
1097elne, unflitme aðum benemde
with oath, upon honor, openly promised
1098þæt he þa wealafe weotena dome
that woful remnant, with wise-men's aid,
1099arum heolde, þæt ðær ænig mon
nobly to govern, so none of the guests
1100wordum ne worcum wære ne bræce,
by word or work should warp the treaty,
1101ne þurh inwitsearo æfre gemænden
or with malice of mind bemoan themselves
1102ðeah hie hira beaggyfan banan folgedon
as forced to follow their fee-giver's slayer,
1103ðeodenlease, þa him swa geþearfod wæs.
lordless men, as their lot ordained.
1104gyf þonne Frysna hwylc frecnan/ spræce
Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman's taunt,
1105ðæs morþorhetes myndgiend wære,
that murderous hatred to mind recall,
1106þonne hit sweordes ecg seðan/ scolde.
then edge of the sword must seal his doom.
1107Ad/ wæs geæfned ond icge gold
Oaths were given, and ancient gold
1108ahæfen of horde. Herescyldinga
heaped from hoard. -- The hardy Scylding,
1109betst beadorinca wæs on bæl gearu.
battle-thane best, on his balefire lay.
1110æt þæm ade wæs eþgesyne
All on the pyre were plain to see
1111swatfah syrce, swyn ealgylden,
the gory sark, the gilded swine-crest,
1112eofer irenheard, æþeling manig
boar of hard iron, and athelings many
1113wundum awyrded; sume on wæle crungon.
slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell.
1114Het ða Hildeburh æt Hnæfes ade
It was Hildeburh's hest, at Hnaef's own pyre
1115hire selfre sunu sweoloðe befæstan,
the bairn of her body on brands to lay,
1116banfatu bærnan ond on bæl don
his bones to burn, on the balefire placed,
1117eame/ on eaxle. Ides gnornode,
at his uncle's side. In sorrowful dirges
1118geomrode giddum. Guðrinc astah.
bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended.
1119Wand to wolcnum wælfyra mæst,
Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,
1120hlynode for hlawe; hafelan multon,
roared o'er the hillock: heads all were melted,
1121bengeato burston, ðonne blod ætspranc,
gashes burst, and blood gushed out
1122laðbite lices. Lig ealle forswealg,
from bites of the body. Balefire devoured,
1123gæsta gifrost, þara ðe þær guð fornam
greediest spirit, those spared not by war
1124bega folces; wæs hira blæd scacen.
out of either folk: their flower was gone.
1125Gewiton him ða wigend wica neosian,
THEN hastened those heroes their home to see,
1126freondum befeallen, Frysland geseon,
friendless, to find the Frisian land,
1127hamas ond heaburh. Hengest ða gyt
houses and high burg. Hengest still
1128wælfagne winter wunode mid Finne
through the death-dyed winter dwelt with Finn,
1129eal/ unhlitme. Eard gemunde,
holding pact, yet of home he minded,
1130þeah þe he ne/ meahte on mere drifan
though powerless his ring-decked prow to drive
1131hringedstefnan; holm storme weol,
over the waters, now waves rolled fierce
1132won wið winde, winter yþe beleac
lashed by the winds, or winter locked them
1133isgebinde, oþðæt oþer com
in icy fetters. Then fared another
1134gear in geardas, swa nu gyt deð,
year to men's dwellings, as yet they do,
1135þa ðe syngales sele bewitiað/,
the sunbright skies, that their season ever
1136wuldortorhtan weder. ða wæs winter scacen,
duly await. Far off winter was driven;
1137fæger foldan bearm. Fundode wrecca,
fair lay earth's breast; and fain was the rover,
1138gist of geardum; he to gyrnwræce
the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered
1139swiðor þohte þonne to sælade,
on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,
1140gif he torngemot þurhteon mihte
and how to hasten the hot encounter
1141þæt he Eotena bearn inne gemunde.
where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.
1142Swa he ne forwyrnde woroldrædenne,
So he escaped not the common doom,
1143þonne him Hunlafing hildeleoman,
when Hun with "Lafing," the light-of-battle,
1144billa selest, on bearm dyde,
best of blades, his bosom pierced:
1145þæs wæron mid Eotenum ecge cuðe.
its edge was famed with the Frisian earls.
1146Swylce ferhðfrecan Fin eft begeat
On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise,
1147sweordbealo sliðen æt his selfes ham,
on himself at home, the horrid sword-death;
1148siþðan grimne gripe Guðlaf ond Oslaf
for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attack
1149æfter sæsiðe, sorge, mændon,
had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed,
1150ætwiton weana dæl; ne meahte wæfre mod
mourning their woes. Finn's wavering spirit
1151forhabban in hreþre. ða wæs heal roden/
bode not in breast. The burg was reddened
1152feonda feorum, swilce Fin slægen,
with blood of foemen, and Finn was slain,
1153cyning on corþre, ond seo cwen numen.
king amid clansmen; the queen was taken.
1154Sceotend Scyldinga to scypon feredon
To their ship the Scylding warriors bore
1155eal ingesteald eorðcyninges,
all the chattels the chieftain owned,
1156swylce hie æt Finnes ham findan meahton
whatever they found in Finn's domain
1157sigla, searogimma. Hie on sælade
of gems and jewels. The gentle wife
1158drihtlice wif to Denum feredon,
o'er paths of the deep to the Danes they bore,
1159læddon to leodum. Leoð wæs asungen,
led to her land. The lay was finished,
1160gleomannes gyd. Gamen eft astah,
the gleeman's song. Then glad rose the revel;
1161beorhtode bencsweg; byrelas sealdon
bench-joy brightened. Bearers draw
1162win of wunderfatum. þa cwom Wealhþeo forð
from their "wonder-vats" wine. Comes Wealhtheow forth,