Paradise Lost: Book IX

Original Text: 
John Milton, Paradise Lost. 2nd edn. (1674).
2With Man, as with his friend, familiar us'd
3To sit indulgent, and with him partake
4Rural repast, permitting him the while
5Venial discourse unblam'd. I now must change
6Those notes to tragic--foul distrust, and breach
7Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt
8And disobedience; on the part of Heav'n,
9Now alienated, distance and distaste,
10Anger and just rebuke, and judgment giv'n,
12Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery,
14Not less but more heroic than the wrath
15Of stern Achilles on his foe pursu'd
16Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage
17Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous'd;
18Or Neptune's ire, or Juno's, that so long
19Perplex'd the Greek, and Cytherea's son:
20If answerable style I can obtain
22Her nightly visitation unimplor'd,
23And dictates to me slumb'ring, or inspires
24Easy my unpremeditated verse:
26Pleas'd me, long choosing and beginning late,
28Wars, hitherto the only argument
29Heroic deem'd, chief maistry to dissect
30With long and tedious havoc fabl'd knights
31In battles feign'd--the better fortitude
32Of patience and heroic martyrdom
33Unsung; or to describe races and games,
34Or tilting furniture, emblazon'd shields,
35Impreses quaint, caparisons and steeds,
36Bases and tinsel trappings, gorgeous knights
37At joust and tournament; then marshall'd feast
38Serv'd up in hall with sewers and seneschals,
39The skill of artifice or office mean:
40Not that which justly gives heroic name
41To person or to poem. Me, of these
42Nor skill'd nor studious, higher argument
43Remains, sufficient of itself to raise
44That name, unless an age too late, or cold
45Climate, or years, damp my intended wing
46Depress'd; and much they may if all be mine,
47Not hers who brings it nightly to my ear.
50Twilight upon the earth, short arbiter
51'Twixt day and night, and now from end to end
52Night's hemisphere had veil'd the horizon round,
53When Satan, who late fled before the threats
55In meditated fraud and malice, bent
57Of heavier on himself, fearless return'd.
58By night he fled, and at midnight return'd
59From compassing the earth, cautious of day
60Since Uriel, Regent of the Sun, descried
61His entrance and forewarn'd the Cherubim
62That kept their watch. Thence, full of anguish, driv'n,
63The space of seven continu'd nights he rode
65He circl'd, four times cross'd the car of Night
66From pole to pole, traversing each colure--
68From entrance or cherubic watch, by stealth
69Found unsuspected way. There was a place
70(Now not, though Sin, not Time, first wrought the change)
71Where Tigris, at the foot of Paradise,
72Into a gulf shot under ground, till part
73Rose up a fountain by the Tree of Life.
74In with the river sunk and with it rose
75Satan, involv'd in rising mist; then sought
77From Eden over Pontus, and the pool
78Maeotis, up beyond the river Ob;
79Downward as far antarctic; and, in length,
80West from Orontes to the ocean barr'd
81At Darien; thence to the land where flows
82Ganges and Indus. Thus the orb he roam'd
83With narrow search, and with inspection deep
84Consider'd every creature, which of all
85Most opportune might serve his wiles, and found
87Him, after long debate, irresolute
90To enter, and his dark suggestions hide
91From sharpest sight; for in the wily snake,
92Whatever sleights, none would suspicious mark
93As from his wit and native subtlety
94Proceeding, which, in other beasts observ'd,
95Doubt might beget of diabolic pow'r
96Active within beyond the sense of brute.
97Thus he resolv'd, but first from inward grief
98His bursting passion into plaints thus pour'd:
99"O Earth, how like to Heav'n, if not preferr'd
101With second thoughts, reforming what was old!
102For what God after better worse would build?
104That shine, yet bear their bright officious lamps
105Light above light, for thee alone as seems,
106In thee concentring all their precious beams
107Of sacred influence! As God in Heav'n
108Is centre, yet extends to all, so thou
109Centring receiv'st from all those orbs; in thee,
110Not in themselves, all their known virtue appears,
111Productive in herb, plant, and nobler birth
112Of creatures animate with gradual life
113Of growth, sense, reason, all summ'd up in Man.
114With what delight could I have walk'd thee round,
115If I could joy in aught--sweet interchange
116Of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains,
117Now land, now sea, and shores with forest crown'd,
118Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these
119Find place or refuge; and the more I see
120Pleasures about me, so much more I feel
122Of contraries: all good to me becomes
123Bane, and in Heav'n much worse would be my state.
124But neither here seek I, no, nor in Heav'n,
126Nor hope to be myself less miserable
127By what I seek, but others to make such
128As I, though thereby worse to me redound--
129For only in destroying I find ease
130To my relentless thoughts; and him destroy'd,
131Or won to what may work his utter loss,
133Follow, as to him link'd in weal or woe:
134In woe then, that destruction wide may range!
135To me shall be the glory sole among
136The infernal Powers, in one day to have marr'd
137What he, Almighty styl'd, six nights and days
138Continu'd making, and who knows how long
139Before had been contriving? though perhaps
140Not longer than since I in one night freed
141From servitude inglorious well-nigh half
144And to repair his numbers thus impair'd--
145Whether such virtue, spent of old, now fail'd
146More Angels to create (if they at least
147Are his created), or to spite us more--
148Determin'd to advance into our room
149A creature form'd of earth, and him endow,
150Exalted from so base original,
151With heav'nly spoils, our spoils. What he decreed
152He effected: Man he made, and for him built
153Magnificent this World, and Earth his seat,
154Him Lord pronounc'd, and, O indignity!
155Subjected to his service Angel-wings
156And flaming ministers, to watch and tend
157Their earthy charge. Of these the vigilance
158I dread, and to elude, thus wrapt in mist
159Of midnight vapour glide obscure, and pry
160In every bush and brake where hap may find
161The serpent sleeping, in whose mazy folds
162To hide me and the dark intent I bring.
163O foul descent! that I, who erst contended
164With Gods to sit the highest, am now constrain'd
165Into a beast, and, mix'd with bestial slime,
167That to the highth of Deity aspir'd!
168But what will not ambition and revenge
169Descend to? Who aspires must down as low
171To basest things. Revenge, at first though sweet,
172Bitter ere long back on itself recoils.
173Let it! I reck not, so it light well aim'd,
175Provokes my envy, this new favourite
177Whom us the more to spite, his Maker rais'd
178From dust: spite then with spite is best repaid."
179So saying, through each thicket, dank or dry,
180Like a black mist low-creeping, he held on
181His midnight search where soonest he might find
182The serpent. Him fast sleeping soon he found,
183In labyrinth of many a round self-roll'd,
184His head the midst, well stor'd with subtle wiles:
185Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den,
187Fearless, unfear'd, he slept. In at his mouth
188The Devil enter'd, and his brutal sense
189In heart or head possessing, soon inspir'd
191Disturb'd not, waiting close th' approach of morn.
192Now, whenas sacred light began to dawn
193In Eden on the humid flow'rs, that breath'd
194Their morning incense, when all things that breathe
195From th' Earth's great altar send up silent praise
196To the Creator, and his nostrils fill
197With grateful smell, forth came the human pair,
198And join'd their vocal worship to the quire
200The season, prime for sweetest scents and airs;
201Then commune how that day they best may ply
202Their growing work--for much their work outgrew
203The hands' dispatch of two gard'ning so wide--
204And Eve first to her husband thus began:
206This garden, still to tend plant, herb, and flow'r,
207Our pleasant task enjoin'd; but till more hands
208Aid us the work under our labour grows,
209Luxurious by restraint: what we by day
210Lop overgrown, or prune or prop or bind,
211One night or two with wanton growth derides,
212Tending to wild. Thou, therefore, now advise,
213Or hear what to my mind first thoughts present:
214Let us divide our labours--thou where choice
215Leads thee, or where most needs, whether to wind
216The woodbine round this arbour, or direct
217The clasping ivy where to climb; while I,
219With myrtle, find what to redress till noon;
220For while so near each other thus all day
221Our task we choose, what wonder if so near
222Looks intervene and smiles, or objects new
223Casual discourse draw on, which intermits
224Our day's work, brought to little though begun
225Early, and th' hour of supper comes unearn'd!"
226To whom mild answer Adam thus returned:
227"Sole Eve, associate sole, to me beyond
228Compare above all living creatures dear!
230How we might best fulfil the work which here
231God hath assign'd us, nor of me shalt pass
232Unprais'd; for nothing lovelier can be found
233In woman than to study household good,
234And good works in her husband to promote.
235Yet not so strictly hath our Lord impos'd
236Labour as to debar us when we need
237Refreshment, whether food or talk between,
238Food of the mind, or this sweet intercourse
239Of looks and smiles; for smiles from reason flow,
240To brute denied, and are of love the food--
242For not to irksome toil, but to delight,
243He made us, and delight to reason join'd.
244These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands
246As we need walk, till younger hands ere long
247Assist us. But if much converse perhaps
248Thee satiate, to short absence I could yield;
249For solitude sometimes is best society,
250And short retirement urges sweet return.
251But other doubt possesses me, lest harm
252Befall thee, sever'd from me; for thou know'st
253What hath been warn'd us; what malicious foe,
254Envying our happiness, and of his own
255Despairing, seeks to work us woe and shame
256By sly assault; and somewhere nigh at hand
257Watches, no doubt, with greedy hope to find
258His wish and best advantage, us asunder,
259Hopeless to circumvent us join'd, where each
260To other speedy aid might lend at need.
261Whether his first design be to withdraw
262Our fealty from God, or to disturb
263Conjugal love--than which perhaps no bliss
264Enjoy'd by us excites his envy more--
265Or this or worse, leave not the faithful side
266That gave thee being, still shades thee and protects.
267The wife, where danger or dishonour lurks,
268Safest and seemliest by her husband stays,
269Who guards her, or with her the worst endures."
271As one who loves, and some unkindness meets,
272With sweet austere composure thus replied:
273"Offspring of Heav'n and Earth, and all Earth's lord!
274That such an enemy we have, who seeks
275Our ruin, both by thee inform'd I learn,
277As in a shady nook I stood behind
278Just then return'd at shut of evening flow'rs.
279But that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt
280To God or thee, because we have a foe
281May tempt it, I expected not to hear.
282His violence thou fear'st not, being such
283As we, not capable of death or pain,
284Can either not receive or can repel.
285His fraud is then thy fear; which plain infers
286Thy equal fear that my firm faith and love
287Can by his fraud be shak'n or seduc'd:
288Thoughts--which how found they harbour in thy breast,
290To whom with healing words Adam replied:
291"Daughter of God and Man, immortal Eve!--
293Not diffident of thee do I dissuade
294Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid
295Th' attempt itself, intended by our foe.
296For he who tempts, though in vain, at least asperses
297The tempted with dishonour foul, suppos'd
298Not incorruptible of faith, not proof
299Against temptation. Thou thyself with scorn
300And anger wouldst resent the offer'd wrong,
301Though ineffectual found; misdeem not, then,
302If such affront I labour to avert
303From thee alone, which on us both at once
304The enemy, though bold, will hardly dare,
305Or, daring, first on me th' assault shall light.
306Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn--
307Subtle he needs must be who could seduce
308Angels--nor think superfluous other's aid.
309I from the influence of thy looks receive
311More wise, more watchful, stronger, if need were
312Of outward strength; while shame, thou looking on,
313Shame to be overcome or overreach'd,
314Would utmost vigour raise, and rais'd unite.
315Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel
316When I am present, and thy trial choose
317With me, best witness of thy virtue tried?"
318So spake domestic Adam in his care
319And matrimonial love; but Eve, who thought
320Less attributed to her faith sincere,
321Thus her reply with accent sweet renew'd:
322"If this be our condition, thus to dwell
324Subtle or violent, we not endu'd
325Single with like defence wherever met,
326How are we happy, still in fear of harm?
327But harm precedes not sin: only our foe
328Tempting affronts us with his foul esteem
329Of our integrity; his foul esteem
331Foul on himself. Then wherefore shunn'd or fear'd
332By us, who rather double honour gain
333From his surmise prov'd false, find peace within,
335And what is faith, love, virtue, unassay'd
336Alone, without exterior help sustain'd?
337Let us not then suspect our happy state
338Left so imperfect by the Maker wise
340Frail is our happiness, if this be so,
341And Eden were no Eden, thus expos'd."
342To whom thus Adam fervently replied:
343"O Woman, best are all things as the will
344Of God ordain'd them; his creating hand
345Nothing imperfect or deficient left
346Of all that he created, much less Man
347Or aught that might his happy state secure,
348Secure from outward force. Within himself
349The danger lies, yet lies within his power:
351But God left free the will; for what obeys
354Lest, by some fair appearing good surpris'd,
355She dictate false and misinform the will
356To do what God expressly hath forbid.
357Not then mistrust, but tender love, enjoins
359Firm we subsist, yet possible to swerve,
360Since reason not impossibly may meet
362And fall into deception unaware,
363Not keeping strictest watch as she was warn'd.
364Seek not temptation, then, which to avoid
365Were better--and most likely if from me
366Thou sever not. Trial will come unsought.
368First thy obedience; th' other who can know?
369Not seeing thee attempted, who attest?
370But if thou think trial unsought may find
372Go; for thy stay, not free, absents thee more.
373Go in thy native innocence; rely
374On what thou hast of virtue, summon all;
375For God towards thee hath done his part: do thine."
376So spake the Patriarch of Mankind; but Eve
378"With thy permission, then, and thus forewarn'd,
379Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words
380Touch'd only, that our trial when least sought
381May find us both perhaps far less prepar'd,
382The willinger I go, nor much expect
383A foe so proud will first the weaker seek--
384So bent, the more shall shame him his repulse."
385Thus saying, from her husband's hand her hand
386Soft she withdrew, and, like a wood-nymph light,
388Betook her to the groves; but Delia's self
390Though not as she with bow and quiver arm'd,
391But with such gard'ning tools as art, yet rude,
394Likest she seem'd--Pomona when she fled
396Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove.
397Her long with ardent look his eye pursu'd
398Delighted, but desiring more her stay;
399Oft he to her his charge of quick return
400Repeated; she to him as oft engag'd
401To be return'd by noon amid the bower,
402And all things in best order to invite
403Noontide repast or afternoon's repose.
404O much deceiv'd, much failing, hapless Eve,
406Thou never from that hour in Paradise
407Found'st either sweet repast or sound repose:
408Such ambush, hid among sweet flowers and shades,
409Waited with hellish rancour imminent
410To intercept thy way, or send thee back
411Despoil'd of innocence, of faith, of bliss.
412For now, and since first break of dawn, the Fiend,
414And on his quest where likeliest he might find
415The only two of mankind, but in them
416The whole included race, his purpos'd prey.
417In bower and field he sought, where any tuft
420By fountain or by shady rivulet
421He sought them both, but wish'd his hap might find
422Eve separate: he wish'd, but not with hope
423Of what so seldom chanc'd, when to his wish,
424Beyond his hope, Eve separate he spies,
425Veil'd in a cloud of fragrance where she stood
426Half-spied, so thick the roses bushing round
427About her glow'd, oft stooping to support
428Each flower of tender stalk whose head, though gay
429Carnation, purple, azure, or speck'd with gold,
430Hung drooping unsustain'd. Them she upstays
432Herself, though fairest unsupported flow'r,
433From her best prop so far, and storm so nigh.
434Nearer he drew, and many a walk travers'd
435Of stateliest covert, cedar, pine, or palm;
437Among thick-wov'n arborets and flow'rs
439Spot more delicious than those gardens feign'd
443Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse.
444Much he the place admir'd, the person more.
445As one who, long in populous city pent,
447Forth issuing on a summer's morn, to breathe
448Among the pleasant villages and farms
449Adjoin'd, from each thing met conceives delight--
451Or dairy, each rural sight, each rural sound--
452If chance with nymph-like step fair virgin pass,
454She most, and in her look sums all delight:
455Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold
457Thus early, thus alone. Her heav'nly form
458Angelic, but more soft and feminine,
460Of gesture or least action, overaw'd
462His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought.
463That space the Evil One abstracted stood
464From his own evil, and for the time remain'd
465Stupidly good, of enmity disarm'd,
466Of guile, of hate, of envy, of revenge.
467But the hot Hell that always in him burns,
468Though in mid Heav'n, soon ended his delight,
469And tortures him now more, the more he sees
470Of pleasure not for him ordain'd. Then soon
473"Thoughts, whither have ye led me? with what sweet
474Compulsion thus transported to forget
475What hither brought us? Hate, not love, nor hope
476Of Paradise for Hell, hope here to taste
477Of pleasure, but all pleasure to destroy,
478Save what is in destroying--other joy
479To me is lost. Then let me not let pass
480Occasion which now smiles. Behold alone
482Her husband--for I view far round--not nigh,
484And strength, of courage haughty, and of limb
486Foe not informidable, exempt from wound,
487I not--so much hath Hell debas'd, and pain
488Enfeebl'd me, to what I was in Heav'n.
489She fair, divinely fair, fit love for Gods;
490Not terrible, though terror be in love
492Hate stronger under show of love well feign'd:
493The way which to her ruin now I tend."
494So spake the Enemy of Mankind, enclos'd
495In serpent, inmate bad, and toward Eve
496Address'd his way: not with indented wave
497Prone on the ground, as since, but on his rear,
498Circular base of rising folds that tow'r'd
499Fold above fold, a surging maze: his head
500Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes:
501With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect
505Lovelier--not those that in Illyria chang'd
506Hermione and Cadmus, or the God
507In Epidaurus: nor to which transform'd
508Ammonian Jove, or Capitoline, was seen,
509He with Olympias, this with her who bore
510Scipio, the highth of Rome. With tract oblique
511At first, as one who sought access but fear'd
512To interrupt, sidelong he works his way.
513As when a ship, by skilful steersman wrought
514Nigh river's mouth or foreland, where the wind
515Veers oft, as oft so steers and shifts her sail,
516So varied he, and of his tortuous train
518To lure her eye. She, busied, heard the sound
519Of rustling leaves, but minded not, as us'd
520To such disport before her through the field
521From every beast, more duteous at her call
523He, bolder now, uncall'd before her stood,
524But as in gaze admiring. Oft he bow'd
526Fawning, and lick'd the ground whereon she trod.
527His gentle dumb expression turn'd at length
528The eye of Eve to mark his play; he, glad
530Organic, or impulse of vocal air,
531His fraudulent temptation thus began:
532"Wonder not, sovran mistress (if perhaps
533Thou canst who art sole wonder), much less arm
534Thy looks, the heav'n of mildness, with disdain,
535Displeas'd that I approach thee thus and gaze
536Insatiate, I thus single, nor have fear'd
538Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair,
539Thee all things living gaze on, all things thine
540By gift, and thy celestial beauty adore,
541With ravishment beheld--there best beheld
542Where universally admir'd; but here,
543In this enclosure wild, these beasts among,
545Half what in thee is fair, one man except
546Who sees thee (and what is one?) who shouldst be seen
547A Goddess among Gods, ador'd and serv'd
548By Angels numberless, thy daily train?"
550Into the heart of Eve his words made way,
551Though at the voice much marvelling; at length,
552Not unamaz'd, she thus in answer spake:
553"What may this mean? Language of Man pronounc'd
554By tongue of brute, and human sense express'd?
555The first at least of these I thought denied
556To beasts, whom God on their creation-day
557Created mute to all articulate sound;
559Much reason, and in their actions, oft appears.
560Thee, Serpent, subtlest beast of all the field
561I knew, but not with human voice endu'd;
562Redouble then this miracle, and say
564To me so friendly grown above the rest
565Of brutal kind that daily are in sight:
566Say, for such wonder claims attention due."
567To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied:
568"Empress of this fair World, resplendent Eve!
569Easy to me it is to tell thee all
570What thou command'st, and right thou shouldst be obey'd.
571I was at first as other beasts that graze
572The trodden herb, of abject thoughts and low
573As was my food, nor aught but food discern'd
574Or sex, and apprehended nothing high:
575Till on a day roving the field, I chanc'd
576A goodly tree far distant to behold,
577Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mix'd,
578Ruddy and gold. I nearer drew to gaze,
579When from the boughs a savoury odour blown,
580Grateful to appetite, more pleas'd my sense
582Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at ev'n,
583Unsuck'd of lamb or kid, that tend their play.
584To satisfy the sharp desire I had
585Of tasting those fair apples, I resolv'd
586Not to defer; hunger and thirst at once,
587Powerful persuaders, quick'n'd at the scent
588Of that alluring fruit, urg'd me so keen.
589About the mossy trunk I wound me soon;
590For high from ground the branches would require
591Thy utmost reach or Adam's: round the tree
592All other beasts that saw, with like desire
593Longing and envying stood, but could not reach.
594Amid the tree now got where plenty hung
595Tempting so nigh, to pluck and eat my fill
596I spar'd not; for such pleasure till that hour
597At feed or fountain never had I found.
598Sated at length, ere long I might perceive
600Of reason in my inward powers, and speech
601Wanted not long, though to this shape retain'd.
602Thenceforth to speculations high or deep
603I turn'd my thoughts, and with capacious mind
604Consider'd all things visible in Heav'n,
606But all that fair and good in thy divine
607Semblance, and in thy beauty's heav'nly ray,
608United I beheld--no fair to thine
609Equivalent or second; which compell'd
611And gaze, and worship thee of right declar'd
614Yet more amaz'd, unwary thus replied:
615"Serpent, thy overpraising leaves in doubt
616The virtue of that fruit, in thee first prov'd.
617But say, where grows the tree? from hence how far?
618For many are the trees of God that grow
619In Paradise, and various, yet unknown
620To us; in such abundance lies our choice
621As leaves a greater store of fruit untouch'd,
622Still hanging incorruptible, till men
623Grow up to their provision, and more hands
625To whom the wily Adder, blithe and glad:
626"Empress, the way is ready and not long:
627Beyond a row of myrtles, on a flat
628Fast by a fountain, one small thicket past
630My conduct, I can bring thee thither soon."
631"Lead, then," said Eve. He, leading, swiftly roll'd
632In tangles, and made intricate seem straight,
633To mischief swift. Hope elevates, and joy
635Compact of unctuous vapour which the night
636Condenses, and the cold environs round,
637Kindl'd through agitation to a flame
638(Which oft, they say, some evil spirit attends),
639Hovering and blazing with delusive light,
640Misleads th' amaz'd night-wanderer from his way
641To bogs and mires, and oft through pond or pool,
642There swallow'd up and lost, from succour far:
643So glister'd the dire Snake, and into fraud
645Of Prohibition, root of all our woe;
646Which when she saw, thus to her guide she spake:
647"Serpent, we might have spar'd our coming hither,
648Fruitless to me, though fruit be here to excess,
649The credit of whose virtue rest with thee,
650Wondrous indeed, if cause of such effects!
652God so commanded, and left that command
653Sole daughter of his voice. The rest, we live
654Law to ourselves: our reason is our law."
655To whom the Tempter guilefully replied:
656"Indeed! Hath God then said that of the fruit
657Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat,
658Yet lords declar'd of all in earth or air?"
659To whom thus Eve, yet sinless: "Of the fruit
660Of each tree in the garden we may eat;
661But of the fruit of this fair tree, amidst
662The garden, God hath said, 'Ye shall not eat
663Thereof, nor shall ye touch it, lest ye die.' "
664She scarce had said, though brief, when now more bold
665The Tempter, but with show of zeal and love
666To Man, and indignation at his wrong,
668Fluctuates disturb'd, yet comely, and in act
669Rais'd, as of some great matter to begin.
670As when of old some orator renown'd
672Flourish'd, since mute, to some great cause address'd,
676Of preface brooking through his zeal of right:
677So standing, moving, or to highth upgrown,
678The Tempter, all impassion'd, thus began:
679"O sacred, wise, and wisdom-giving Plant,
681Within me clear, not only to discern
682Things in their causes, but to trace the ways
684Queen of this Universe! do not believe
685Those rigid threats of death. Ye shall not die.
686How should ye? By the fruit? it gives you life
688Me who have touch'd and tasted, yet both live
689And life more perfect have attain'd than Fate
691Shall that be shut to Man which to the beast
692Is open? or will God incense his ire
693For such a petty trespass, and not praise
694Rather your dauntless virtue, whom the pain
695Of death denounc'd, whatever thing death be,
696Deterr'd not from achieving what might lead
697To happier life, knowledge of good and evil?
699Be real), why not known, since easier shunn'd?
700God therefore cannot hurt ye, and be just;
701Not just, not God; not fear'd then, nor obey'd:
702Your fear itself of death removes the fear.
703Why then was this forbid? Why but to awe,
704Why but to keep ye low and ignorant,
705His worshippers? He knows that in the day
706Ye eat thereof your eyes, that seem so clear,
707Yet are but dim, shall perfectly be then
708Open'd and clear'd, and ye shall be as Gods,
709Knowing both good and evil as they know.
710That ye should be as Gods, since I as Man,
712I, of brute, human; ye, of human, Gods.
714Human, to put on Gods--death to be wish'd,
715Though threat'n'd, which no worse than this can bring!
716And what are Gods, that Man may not become
717As they, participating godlike food?
718The Gods are first, and that advantage use
719On our belief, that all from them proceeds.
720I question it; for this fair earth I see,
721Warm'd by the sun, producing every kind,
723Knowledge of good and evil in this tree,
724That whoso eats thereof forthwith attains
725Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies
726Th' offence, that Man should thus attain to know?
727What can your knowledge hurt him, or this tree
728Impart against his will, if all be his?
729Or is it envy? and can envy dwell
730In Heav'nly breasts? These, these and many more
733He ended; and his words, replete with guile,
734Into her heart too easy entrance won.
735Fix'd on the fruit she gaz'd, which to behold
736Might tempt alone; and in her ears the sound
739Meanwhile the hour of noon drew on and wak'd
740An eager appetite, rais'd by the smell
741So savoury of that fruit, which with desire,
743Solicited her longing eye; yet first,
744Pausing a while, thus to herself she mus'd:
745"Great are thy virtues, doubtless, best of fruits,
746Though kept from Man, and worthy to be admir'd,
748Gave elocution to the mute, and taught
749The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise.
750Thy praise he also who forbids thy use
751Conceals not from us, naming thee the Tree
752Of Knowledge, knowledge both of good and evil:
753Forbids us then to taste, but his forbidding
754Commends thee more, while it infers the good
756For good unknown sure is not had, or had
757And yet unknown, is as not had at all.
759Forbids us good, forbids us to be wise?
760Such prohibitions bind not. But if Death
761Bind us with after-bands, what profits then
762Our inward freedom? In the day we eat
763Of this fair fruit, our doom is we shall die!
764How dies the Serpent? He hath eat'n, and lives
765And knows and speaks and reasons and discerns,
766Irrational till then. For us alone
767Was death invented? or to us denied
768This intellectual food, for beasts reserv'd?
769For beasts it seems; yet that one beast which first
770Hath tasted envies not, but brings with joy
772Friendly to Man, far from deceit or guile.
773What fear I then? rather, what know to fear
774Under this ignorance of good and evil,
775Of God or death, of law or penalty?
776Here grows the cure of all: this fruit divine,
777Fair to the eye, inviting to the taste,
778Of virtue to make wise. What hinders, then
779To reach and feed at once both body and mind?"
780So saying, her rash hand in evil hour
783Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe
784That all was lost. Back to the thicket slunk
785The guilty Serpent, and well might; for Eve,
786Intent now wholly on her taste, naught else
787Regarded: such delight till then, as seem'd,
788In fruit she never tasted, whether true
789Or fancied so through expectation high
790Of knowledge: nor was Godhead from her thought.
791Greedily she ingorg'd without restraint,
794Thus to herself she pleasingly began:
798And thy fair fruit let hang, as to no end
799Created! but henceforth my early care,
800Not without song each morning, and due praise,
801Shall tend thee, and the fertile burden ease
802Of thy full branches, offer'd free to all:
803Till, dieted by thee, I grow mature
804In knowledge, as the Gods who all things know--
806For had the gift been theirs, it had not here
808Best guide: not following thee, I had remain'd
809In ignorance; thou open'st Wisdom's way
810And giv'st access, though secret she retire.
812High, and remote to see from thence distinct
813Each thing on Earth--and other care perhaps
814May have diverted from continual watch
816About him. But to Adam in what sort
817Shall I appear? Shall I to him make known
818As yet my change, and give him to partake
819Full happiness with me, or rather not,
821Without copartner? so to add what wants
822In female sex, the more to draw his love,
823And render me more equal, and perhaps--
824A thing not undesirable--sometime
826This may be well; but what if God have seen,
827And death ensue? Then I shall be no more;
828And Adam, wedded to another Eve,
829Shall live with her enjoying, I extinct--
830A death to think! Confirm'd then, I resolve:
831Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe!
832So dear I love him that with him all deaths
833I could endure, without him live no life."
834So saying, from the tree her step she turn'd:
835But first, low reverence done as to the Power
836That dwelt within, whose presence had infus'd
838From nectar, drink of Gods. Adam the while,
839Waiting desirous her return, had wove
840Of choicest flow'rs a garland, to adorn
841Her tresses and her rural labours crown,
842As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen.
843Great joy he promis'd to his thoughts, and new
844Solace in her return, so long delay'd;
847And forth to meet her went, the way she took
848That morn when first they parted. By the Tree
849Of Knowledge he must pass; there he her met,
851A bough of fairest fruit that downy smil'd,
852New gather'd, and ambrosial smell diffus'd.
854Came prologue, and apology to prompt,
855Which with bland words at will she thus address'd:
856"Hast thou not wonder'd, Adam, at my stay?
857Thee I have miss'd, and thought it long, depriv'd
858Thy presence--agony of love till now
859Not felt, nor shall be twice; for never more
861The pain of absence from thy sight. But strange
862Hath been the cause, and wonderful to hear:
863This tree is not, as we are told, a tree
865Op'ning the way, but of divine effect
866To open eyes and make them Gods who taste;
868Or not restrain'd as we, or not obeying,
869Hath eat'n of the fruit, and is become
870Not dead, as we are threat'n'd, but thenceforth
871Endu'd with human voice and human sense,
873Persuasively hath so prevail'd that I
874Have also tasted, and have also found
875Th' effects to correspond: opener mine eyes,
876Dim erst, dilated spirits, ampler heart,
877And growing up to Godhead, which for thee
878Chiefly I sought, without thee can despise;
879For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss,
880Tedious unshar'd with thee, and odious soon.
881Thou, therefore, also taste, that equal lot
882May join us, equal joy, as equal love;
883Lest, thou not tasting, different degree
884Disjoin us, and I then too late renounce
885Deity for thee, when Fate will not permit."
886Thus Eve with count'nance blithe her story told;
887But in her cheek distemper flushing glow'd.
888On th' other side, Adam, soon as he heard
889The fatal trespass done by Eve, amaz'd,
891Ran through his veins and all his joints relax'd.
892From his slack hand the garland wreath'd for Eve
893Down dropp'd, and all the faded roses shed.
894Speechless he stood and pale, till thus at length
895First to himself he inward silence broke:
896"O fairest of creation, last and best
897Of all God's works, creature in whom excell'd
898Whatever can to sight or thought be form'd
899Holy, divine, good, amiable, or sweet!
900How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost,
902Rather, how hast thou yielded to transgress
903The strict forbiddance, how to violate
904The sacred fruit forbidd'n? Some cursed fraud
905Of enemy hath beguil'd thee, yet unknown,
906And me with thee hath ruin'd; for with thee
908How can I live without thee? how forgo
909Thy sweet converse, and love so dearly join'd,
910To live again in these wild woods forlorn?
911Should God create another Eve, and I
912Another rib afford, yet loss of thee
914The link of nature draw me: flesh of flesh,
915Bone of my bone thou art, and from thy state
916Mine never shall be parted, bliss or woe."
918Recomforted and, after thoughts disturb'd,
919Submitting to what seem'd remediless,
920Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turn'd:
921"Bold deed thou hast presum'd, advent'rous Eve,
922And peril great provok'd, who thus hast dar'd
923Had it been only coveting to eye
924That sacred fruit, sacred to abstinence;
925Much more to taste it, under ban to touch.
926But past who can recall, or done undo?
929Is not so heinous now--foretasted fruit,
930Profan'd first by the Serpent, by him first
931Made common and unhallow'd ere your taste;
932Nor yet on him found deadly: he yet lives--
933Lives, as thou saidst, and gains to live as Man,
934Higher degree of life: inducement strong
936Proportional ascent; which cannot be
937But to be Gods or Angels, demi-gods.
938Nor can I think that God, Creator wise,
939Though threat'ning, will in earnest so destroy
940Us, his prime creatures, dignified so high,
941Set over all his works, which in our fall,
942For us created, needs with us must fail,
943Dependent made. So God shall uncreate,
944Be frustrate, do, undo, and labour lose--
946Creation could repeat, yet would be loath
947Us to abolish, lest the Adversary
948Triumph and say: 'Fickle their state whom God
949Most favours; who can please him long? Me first
950He ruin'd, now mankind; whom will he next?'--
951Matter of scorn not to be given the Foe.
952However, I with thee have fix'd my lot,
953Certain to undergo like doom. If death
954Consort with thee, death is to me as life:
955So forcible within my heart I feel
956The bond of Nature draw me to my own,
957My own in thee; for what thou art is mine:
958Our state cannot be severed, we are one,
959One flesh. To lose thee were to lose myself."
960So Adam; and thus Eve to him replied:
961"O glorious trial of exceeding love,
962Illustrious evidence, example high!
963Engaging me to emulate (but, short
964Of thy perfection, how shall I attain?),
965Adam, from whose dear side I boast me sprung,
966And gladly of our union hear thee speak,
967One heart, one soul in both; whereof good proof
968This day affords, declaring thee resolv'd,
969Rather than death, or aught than death more dread,
970Shall separate us, link'd in love so dear,
971To undergo with me one guilt, one crime,
972If any be, of tasting this fair fruit,
973Whose virtue (for of good still good proceeds,
975This happy trial of thy love, which else
976So eminently never had been known.
977Were it I thought death menac'd would ensue
978This my attempt, I would sustain alone
979The worst, and not persuade thee: rather die
981Pernicious to thy peace, chiefly assur'd
982Remarkably so late of thy so true,
983So faithful, love unequall'd. But I feel
985Augmented, op'n'd eyes, new hopes, new joys,
986Taste so divine that what of sweet before
987Hath touch'd my sense flat seems to this and harsh.
988On my experience, Adam, freely taste,
989And fear of death deliver to the winds!"
990So saying, she embrac'd him, and for joy
991Tenderly wept, much won that he his love
992Had so ennobl'd, as of choice to incur
993Divine displeasure for her sake, or death.
994In recompense (for such compliance bad
995Such recompense best merits), from the bough
996She gave him of that fair enticing fruit
997With liberal hand. He scrupl'd not to eat,
998Against his better knowledge, not deceiv'd,
999But fondly overcome with female charm.
1001In pangs, and Nature gave a second groan;
1002Sky lour'd and, muttering thunder, some sad drops
1003Wept at completing of the mortal sin
1004Original; while Adam took no thought,
1005Eating his fill, nor Eve to iterate
1006Her former trespass fear'd, the more to soothe
1007Him with her lov'd society: that now,
1008As with new wine intoxicated both,
1009They swim in mirth, and fancy that they feel
1010Divinity within them breeding wings
1011Wherewith to scorn the Earth. But that false fruit
1012Far other operation first display'd,
1013Carnal desire inflaming. He on Eve
1014Began to cast lascivious eyes; she him
1015As wantonly repaid: in lust they burn,
1016Till Adam thus 'gan Eve to dalliance move:
1017"Eve, now I see thou art exact of taste
1020And palate call 'judicious.' I the praise
1021Yield thee, so well this day thou hast purvey'd.
1022Much pleasure we have lost, while we abstain'd
1023From this delightful fruit, nor known till now
1024True relish, tasting. If such pleasure be
1025In things to us forbidd'n, it might be wish'd
1027But come; so well refresh'd, now let us play,
1028As meet is after such delicious fare;
1030I saw thee first and wedded thee, adorn'd
1031With all perfections, so inflame my sense
1032With ardour to enjoy thee, fairer now
1033Than ever: bounty of this virtuous tree!"
1035Of amorous intent, well understood
1036Of Eve, whose eye darted contagious fire.
1037Her hand he seiz'd, and to a shady bank,
1038Thick overhead with verdant roof embow'r'd,
1039He led her, nothing loath; flow'rs were the couch,
1040Pansies and violets and asphodel
1041And hyacinth--Earth's freshest, softest lap.
1042There they their fill of love and love's disport
1043Took largely, of their mutual guilt the seal,
1044The solace of their sin, till dewy sleep
1045Oppress'd them, wearied with their amorous play.
1046Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit,
1047That with exhilarating vapour bland
1048About their spirits had play'd and inmost powers
1049Made err, was now exhal'd, and grosser sleep,
1051Encumber'd, now had left them, up they rose
1052As from unrest, and each the other viewing,
1053Soon found their eyes how op'n'd, and their minds
1054How dark'n'd. Innocence, that as a veil
1055Had shadow'd them from knowing ill, was gone,
1056Just confidence and native righteousness
1057And honour, from about them: naked left
1060Herculean Samson, from the harlot-lap
1061Of Philistean Dalilah, and wak'd
1062Shorn of his strength:-they destitute and bare
1063Of all their virtue. Silent, and in face
1064Confounded, long they sat, as struck'n mute;
1065Till Adam, though not less than Eve abash'd,
1066At length gave utterance to these words constrain'd:
1067"O Eve, in evil hour thou didst give ear
1069To counterfeit Man's voice--true in our fall,
1070False in our promis'd rising, since our eyes
1071Op'n'd we find indeed, and find we know
1072Both good and evil, good lost and evil got:
1073Bad fruit of knowledge, if this be to know,
1074Which leaves us naked thus, of honour void,
1075Of innocence, of faith, of purity,
1076Our wonted ornaments now soil'd and stain'd,
1077And in our faces evident the signs
1078Of foul concupiscence! whence evil store,
1080Be sure then! How shall I behold the face
1081Henceforth of God or Angel, erst with joy
1082And rapture so oft beheld? Those Heav'nly Shapes
1084Insufferably bright. O might I here
1085In solitude live savage, in some glade
1086Obscur'd, where highest woods, impenetrable
1087To star or sunlight, spread their umbrage broad,
1089Ye cedars, with innumerable boughs
1092What best may for the present serve to hide
1093The parts of each from other that seem most
1095Some tree, whose broad smooth leaves, together sew'd,
1096And girded on our loins, may cover round
1097Those middle parts, that this new comer, Shame,
1098There sit not and reproach us as unclean."
1099So counsell'd he, and both together went
1100Into the thickest wood. There soon they chose
1102But such as at this day, to Indians known,
1103In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms
1104Branching so broad and long that in the ground
1105The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow
1106About the mother tree, a pillar'd shade
1107High overarch'd, and echoing walks between:
1108There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat,
1109Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds
1110At loop-holes cut through thickest shade. Those leaves
1112And with what skill they had together sew'd,
1113To gird their waist--vain covering, if to hide
1114Their guilt and dreaded shame! O how unlike
1115To that first naked glory! Such of late
1116Columbus found th' American, so girt
1118Among the trees on isles and woody shores.
1119Thus fenc'd and, as they thought, their shame in part
1120Cover'd, but not at rest or ease of mind,
1122Rain'd at their eyes, but high winds worse within
1123Began to rise, high passions--anger, hate,
1124Mistrust, suspicion, discord--and shook sore
1125Their inward state of mind, calm region once
1126And full of peace, now toss'd and turbulent:
1127For Understanding rul'd not, and the Will
1128Heard not her lore, both in subjection now
1129To sensual Appetite, who, from beneath
1130Usurping over sovran Reason, claim'd
1131Superior sway. From thus distemper'd breast
1134"Would thou hadst heark'n'd to my words, and stay'd
1135With me, as I besought thee, when that strange
1136Desire of wand'ring, this unhappy morn,
1137I know not whence possess'd thee! We had then
1138Remain'd still happy--not, as now, despoil'd
1139Of all our good, sham'd, naked, miserable!
1140Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve
1141The faith they owe; when earnestly they seek
1142Such proof, conclude they then begin to fail."
1143To whom, soon mov'd with touch of blame, thus Eve:
1144"What words have pass'd thy lips, Adam severe!
1145Imput'st thou that to my default, or will
1146Of wandering, as thou call'st it, which who knows
1147But might as ill have happ'n'd thou being by,
1148Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there,
1149Or here th' attempt, thou couldst not have discern'd
1150Fraud in the Serpent, speaking as he spake,
1151No ground of enmity between us known,
1152Why he should mean me ill or seek to harm.
1153Was I to have never parted from thy side?
1155Being as I am, why didst not thou, the head,
1156Command me absolutely not to go,
1157Going into such danger, as thou saidst?
1158Too facile then, thou didst not much gainsay,
1159Nay, didst permit, approve, and fair dismiss.
1160Hadst thou been firm and fix'd in thy dissent,
1161Neither had I transgress'd, nor thou with me."
1162To whom, then first incens'd, Adam replied:
1163"Is this the love, is this the recompense
1165Immutable when thou wert lost, not I--
1166Who might have liv'd and joy'd immortal bliss,
1167Yet willingly chose rather death with thee?
1168And am I now upbraided as the cause
1169Of thy transgressing? not enough severe,
1170It seems, in thy restraint! What could I more?
1171I warn'd thee, I admonish'd thee, foretold
1172The danger and the lurking enemy
1173That lay in wait. Beyond this had been force,
1174And force upon free will hath here no place.
1176Either to meet no danger or to find
1177Matter of glorious trial; and perhaps
1178I also err'd in overmuch admiring
1179What seem'd in thee so perfect that I thought
1180No evil durst attempt thee; but I rue
1181That error now, which is become my crime,
1182And thou th' accuser. Thus it shall befall
1183Him who, to worth in women overtrusting,
1184Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook;
1185And, left to herself, if evil thence ensue,
1186She first his weak indulgence will accuse."
1187Thus they in mutual accusation spent
1188The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning;
1189And of their vain contest appear'd no end.


1] The angel guest is Raphael, whose discourse with Adam has extended from the angel's arrival in Book V to the end of Book VIII. Sometimes, however, God seemed to speak directly to man (as in one instance which Adam recounts to Raphael) but always (so Milton held) through the unrecognized medium of the Son or some angel. The intimacy of Earth and Heaven marked by Raphael's joining Adam and Eve in their rural repast and his permitting Adam venial discourse (light but blameless talk) is now to be lost. Back to Line
11] Cf. above I, 3. Back to Line
13] This theme (argument--see above I, 24 n.) is not less but more heroic, i.e., worthy of treatment in an epic or heroic poem, than that of the Iliad, whose stated subject was the wrath of Achilles and which recounted his pursuit and slaying of Hector, or than that of the Aeneid with the rivalry of Aeneas and Turnus for the hand of Lavinia, or that of the Odyssey with Neptune's persecution of Odysseus (the Greek), or again that of the Aeneid with Juno's unrelenting enmity to Aeneas, the son of Venus (Cytherea). Back to Line
21] my celestial patroness: i.e. the Heavenly Muse invoked at I, 5 above. Back to Line
25] this subject for heroic (i.e., epic) song, namely, the Fall of Man: see above, Introductory Note. Back to Line
27] Though he has actually, in Books V and VI, supposed the element of martial prowess expected of the epic, Milton protests that he is averse to such matter, hitherto deemed the only fit subject for epic and romance, which deal at tedious length with the ruin wrought by fabulous warriors in fictitious battles, neglecting the while the true heroism of saints and martyrs. Then, mingling epic and romance in a common condemnation he specifies epic games (like those attending the obsequies of Patroclus in the Iliad and Anchises in the Aeneid) and the description of the equipment (furniture) of the knights armed for tournaments, their shields emblazon'd with odd or ingenious devices (Impreses quaint); or of the steeds and their trappings, the long cloths thrown over them (Bases), often of material interwoven with gold or silver thread (tinsel); or, finally, of the ceremonious feast served in the castle hall, with due attendance of household officers, sewer (chief server) and seneschal (steward of the household) all this dwelling on the skill and artifice of menials, not on anything that can be justly called heroic in person or poem. To Milton there remains a higher theme (argument) sufficient in itself to raise to its true level that (debased) name of heroic, unless what he elsewhere calls "answerable style" should fail him through the advanced age and decrepitude of the whole world (an age too late) a recurrent fear in Milton's day; or the cold northern climate, so unlike that of the Mediterranean cradle of culture, where, as Milton said, the sun "ripens wits as well as fruits"; or, finally his own advancing years: all of which might well frustrate his intended flight if indeed he relied solely on himself, and not, as he does, on the Heavenly Muse. Back to Line
48] Resuming his narrative, Milton refers first to the evening on which Raphael departs (end of Book VIII), then to the expulsion of Satan from the garden by Gabriel (end of Book IV). Back to Line
49] Hesperus: see above IV, 605 n. Back to Line
54] improv'd: taught by experience. Back to Line
56] maugre: in spite of. Back to Line
64] Keeping always within the shadow of night, Satan circled the equator (equinoctial line) and then circled the earth four times along the imaginary lines (the colures) running from north to south through the poles. Back to Line
67] the coast averse: the side opposite. Back to Line
76] Having described Satan's journey astronomically, Milton now describes it geographically. Satan travelled northward over the Black Sea (Pantus) and the Sea of Azof (the pool Maeotis) to the Siberian river Ob, which flows into the Arctic Sea; from the North pole he then descended to the South pole. Westward he travelled along the Syrian river Orontes, over the Mediterranean and the Atlantic to the Isthmus of Panama (Darien) and thence across the Pacific to India (Canges and Indus). Back to Line
86] "Now the Serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made'' (Genesis 3:1). Back to Line
88] sentence: decision. Back to Line
89] imp: offspring. Back to Line
100] Gods: angels (often so called by Milton and justified by him with reference to the Bible). Back to Line
103] According to the Ptolemaic (or geocentric) scheme, Milton has the heavenly bodies circle round the earth, and according to the Christian idea they exist in order to be serviceable (officious) to it. Further, he returns to the idea of their nourishing by their influence all growth (see above, IV, 667-73 and n.). Finally, "According to the traditional scheme inherited from the Greeks, man contained within himself the faculty of growth, which was the peculiar property of vegetables, and the faculty of sensation, which was the peculiar property of the lower animals, while his own peculiar property of reason was added to these'' (Tillyard). Back to Line
121] siege: seat or dwelling. Back to Line
125] mast'ring: mastering. Back to Line
132] Nature is likewise transformed by the Fall of Man. Back to Line
142] name: species or race (those that are named angel). Back to Line
143] Satan, who has found cause for rebelling in God's exalting of the Son (see Head Note), now repines at the gifts showered on man. He has always affected to doubt whether God created the angels, or whether they were not self-originating, but supposing God did create them, Satan now fancies that power lost or spent. Always, indeed, he gets the facts wrong, his mind deluded by an errant Will. Back to Line
166] incarnate: enter into fleshly form. Milton deliberately uses the word with religious associations, to heighten the contrast of Satan with Christ. Back to Line
170] obnoxious: liable, exposed to. Back to Line
174] Satan, who has professed no enmity to man (above, IV, 362-81), now hardens his heart against him. Back to Line
176] son of despite: a Hebraism, like "son of wickedness'' (Psalm 89:22) or "sons of valour'' (II Samuel 2:7). Back to Line
186] nocent: poisonous. Back to Line
190] act intelligential: activity of intellect. Back to Line
199] partake / The season: share in the delights of the season. Back to Line
205] still: incessantly. Back to Line
218] spring: thicket. Back to Line
229] motion'd: proposed, moved. Back to Line
241] end: object. Back to Line
245] wilderness: wildness. Back to Line
270] virgin: innocent, pure. Back to Line
276] the parting Angel: Raphael, whose last words to Adam were a warning to "beware'' and "stand fast'' (VIII, 633-43). Back to Line
289] misthought: misjudgment. Back to Line
292] from ... entire: in its Latin sense of "whole,'' hence untouched by. Back to Line
310] Access: increase. Back to Line
323] strait'n'd: confined. Back to Line
330] front: brow, forehead. Back to Line
334] event: outcome. Back to Line
339] As not secure to us whether alone or together. Back to Line
350] Milton is insistent on man's free will. Back to Line
352] "Right reason'' was the sundard of judgment repeatedly invoked in Chnstian as in classical thought. Back to Line
353] erect: alert. Back to Line
358] mind: remind. Back to Line
361] suborn'd: procured for an evil purpose. Back to Line
367] approve: prove. Back to Line
371] securer: less careful or (as Eve takes it, 381) less prepared, less on guard. Back to Line
377] Eve, persistent, but submissive in manner, has the last word. Back to Line
387] Oread: mountain nymph. Dryad: wood nymph. Delia's train: Diana or Artemis (goddess of the hunt), born on Delos and thus named Delia, was attended by a company (train) of nymphs. Back to Line
389] deport: bearing. Back to Line
392] Guiltless of fire: i.e., formed without the use of fire, necessary to work metal, but not yet discovered and put to sometimes guilty use. Back to Line
393] Pales: a Roman goddess of flocks and herds. Pomona: Roman goddess of fruit. Back to Line
395] Vertumnus: a lesser country deity of Roman mythology, who wooed, and after long resistance won, Pomona. Ceres: the Roman goddess of agriculture, mother of Proserpina; see above, IV, 271 and n. Back to Line
405] event perverse: outcome the very opposite. Back to Line
413] Mere: entire, nothing more than. Back to Line
418] more pleasant: especially pleasant. Back to Line
419] tendance: object of care. Back to Line
431] mindless: careless, with no thought (of danger). Back to Line
436] voluble: with rolling motion. Back to Line
438] Imborder'd: planted to form borders. Back to Line
440] reviv'd Adonis: Adonis, who was slain by a boar, was rescued from the underworld by the prayers of Venus and allowed to spend six months with her each year in a beautiful place known as the garden of Adonis. Back to Line
441] Alcinous: King of Phoecia who entertained the wandering Odysseus (Laertes' son), possessed wonderful gardens (Odyssey, VII, 112ff.). Back to Line
442] not mystic: historical, not imaginary or fictitious (as were the gardens previously mentioned), since this is mentioned in Scripture (Song of Solomon 6:2). the sapient king: Solomon "made affmity with Pharaoh king of Egypt and took Pharaoh's daughter and brought her into the city of David'' (I Kings 3:1). Some critics held that the Song of Solomon was the epithalamium or wedding song for this marriage. Back to Line
446] annoy: make noisome. Back to Line
450] tedded: mown and spread out to dry. kine: cattle. Back to Line
453] for her: by virtue of her presence. Back to Line
456] plat: plot. Back to Line
459] her manner, whether of action, however slight, or gesture. Back to Line
461] rapine: robbery. Back to Line
471] recollects: in the literal sense of "re-collects." Back to Line
472] gratulating: rejoicing, gloating. Back to Line
481] opportune: conveniently placed. Back to Line
483] intellectual: intellect. Back to Line
485] terrestrial mould: earth. Back to Line
491] not: if not, unless. Back to Line
502] spires: coils. Back to Line
503] redundant: wave-like. Back to Line
504] Milton compares the Serpent with those of classic myth. Cadmus and Hermione were, in Illyria on the east coast of the Adriatic), changed into serpents (Ovid, Metamorphoses, IV, 562 ff.). Aesculapius, god of medicine, manifested himself as a serpent at his temple at Epidaurus in Argolis (ibid., XV, 670-74). Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great, claimed that he was the son of Jupiter Ammon (Ammonian Jove; see above, IV, 277 and note), who appeared to her in the form of a serpent (Plutarch, Life of Alexander). In the same form Jupiter Capitalinus (i.e., of Rome) became, according to legend, the father of Scipio Africanus, the greatest of the Romans (highth of Rome), by Sempronia. Back to Line
517] wanton: playful. Back to Line
522] herd disguis'd: men transformed to beasts by the enchantress Circe (Odyssey, X). Back to Line
525] turret: towerlike. Back to Line
529] He either used the serpent's tongue as organ of speech, or produced a voice by some more direct impulsion of air. Back to Line
537] awful: awe-inspiring. Back to Line
544] shallow to: without sufficient intelligence to. Back to Line
549] gloz'd: spoke flatteringly. proem: formal introduction. Back to Line
558] demur: remain in doubt about. Back to Line
563] speakable of mute: capable of speech after being dumb. Back to Line
581] According to popular belief, snakes liked fennel and sucked the teats of sheep and goats. Back to Line
599] to degree: to the extent. Back to Line
605] Middle: the air between them. Back to Line
610] importune: importunate. Back to Line
612] universal Dame: mistress of the universe. Back to Line
613] spirited: spirit-possessed. Back to Line
624] birth: produce. Back to Line
629] blowing: blossoming. balm: balsam tree. Back to Line
634] Milton likens the serpent's bright crest to the will-o'-the-wisp which leads travellers astray and sometimes to their destruction, offering first a scientific explanation (Compact of unctuous vapour, i.e., `composed of oily fumes'), then that of popular superstition. Back to Line
644] Tree / Of prohibition: a Hebraism for "forbidden tree." Back to Line
651] The prohibition regarding the Tree of Knowledge is the one example of "positive law'' (Sole daughter of his voice is a Hebraism for only uttered command) in contrast with the ''law of nature,'' known by reason, to which the rest of their conduct is left. Back to Line
667] New parts puts on: assumes a new role in the drama. Back to Line
671] free Rome: Rome while yet free (under the republic). Back to Line
673] in himself collected: complete master of all his faculties. part: i.e., of the body. Back to Line
674] act: action (which won attention before he spoke). Back to Line
675] in highth began: plunged right into the subject, in height of passion. Back to Line
680] science: knowledge. Back to Line
683] highest agents: active beings of the highest rank. Back to Line
687] To: perhaps "in addition to'' (which is of course a Satanic falsehood: the Tree of Knowledge is not the Tree of Life) or perhaps the meaning is, "it gives as it were a new life, the life of knowledge.'' Back to Line
690] lot: appointed status. Back to Line
698] Of good, how just? how can God be just if he prohibits the knowledge of good? Back to Line
711] Internal man: externally he is still a serpent. Back to Line
713] by putting off humanity to put on divinity. Satan parodies I Corinthians 15:53 and Colossians 3:9-10. Back to Line
722] If they: i.e., if they produce. Back to Line
731] import: signify, indicate. Back to Line
732] humane: probably means "gracious," but possibly (as often in Milton's day) "human." Back to Line
737] impregn'd: pregnant. Back to Line
738] to her seeming: as it seemed to her. Back to Line
742] Inclinable: inclined towards. Back to Line
747] assay: test. Back to Line
755] our want: our lack (of that good). Back to Line
758] In plain: in brief. Back to Line
771] author unsuspect: source of information not to be suspected. Back to Line
781] eat: ate. Back to Line
782] Nature, because likewise disrupted by Man's Fall, gave signs of woe. Back to Line
792] eating: that she was eating. Back to Line
793] boon: gay, expansive (as in boon companion). Back to Line
795] O most sovereign, etc., among all trees. Back to Line
796] of operation blest / To sapience: gifted with the power to confer wisdom. Back to Line
797] infam'd: slandered, misrepresented. Back to Line
805] others: i.e., the gods. Back to Line
807] Experience: experiment. I owe: I am indebted. Back to Line
811] secret: hidden. Back to Line
815] Our great Forbidder: Eve's new view of God, a first result of her fall. safe: safely out of the way, not dangerous. Back to Line
820] odds: advantage. Back to Line
825] A like confusion of equality with liberty was the ground of Satan's rebellion. Back to Line
837] sciential: productive of knowledge (science--Lat. scientia--used of all knowledge). Back to Line
845] divine of: prophetic of, foreboding. Back to Line
846] the falt'ring measure: the uneven beat of his heart. Back to Line
850] Scarce ... returning: only just now returning. Back to Line
853] A pleading (and perhaps a guilty) expression in her face (excuse) served, like the prologue to a play, to introduce (prompt) a formal apology or verbal defence. Back to Line
860] What I rashly sought when it was untried. Back to Line
864] tasted: if tasted. Back to Line
867] tasted such: proved by tasting to be of such effect. Back to Line
872] to admiration: so as to give rise to wonder (cf. Lat. admirari, to wonder). Back to Line
890] Astonied: astonished. If Milton is thinking of Job 17:8, he will be well aware of the irony of Adam's response: "Upright men shall be astonied at this and the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite." Back to Line
901] devote: doomed. Back to Line
907] Milton agrees with St. Augustine that, unlike Eve, Adam was not deceived but chose deliberately to share Eve's fate: his sin likewise was disobedience, but the motive was uxoriousness. Milton, however, does not minimize the diffculty of Adam's position. Back to Line
913] Cf. ''This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh .... Therefore shall a man ... cleave unto his wife'' (Genesis 2:23-24). Back to Line
917] Adam's decision (wrong though it be) brings (temporary) calm of mind. Back to Line
927] so: even so. Back to Line
928] Perhaps the fact (deed) is not so heinous now that the serpent has first defiled the fruit. Adam mistakenly attributes virtue to the fruit itself, which for Milton has no such power but serves only as a test of obedience. Back to Line
935] tasting: if we taste. Back to Line
945] Not well conceiv'd of God: it is not to be supposed that God would behave in this manner. Back to Line
974] by occasion: indirectly. Back to Line
980] oblige: as in Latin, to make guilty or liable to punishment. fact: deed (see above 928-31n). Back to Line
984] event: outcome (see above, line 405 n.). Back to Line
1000] Cf. above, lines 782-84 and note, and "the whole creation groaneth ... till now" (Romans 8:22). Back to Line
1018] elegant: discriminating. sapience: wisdom. Back to Line
1019] Since we use the word savour (i.e., taste) in reference to both the understanding (as in "man of taste") and the palate. Back to Line
1026] For: instead of. Back to Line
1029] Adam's words recall those of Zeus to Hera (Iliad XIV. 292 ff.). Back to Line
1034] toy: caress. Back to Line
1050] unkindly: unnatural; grosser sleep: in contrast to that light and natural sleep of innocence described earlier (P.L., V, 3-5). Back to Line
1058] he: Shame. his robe: the robe of Shame. Back to Line
1059] Samson, of the tribe of Dan, strong like Hercules, was shorn of his strength while sleeping (Judges 16). Back to Line
1068] Worm: serpent. Back to Line
1079] last: can hardly mean `worst' as editors have assumed since the first, namely, alienation from God, is clearly the worst; last then because the result of all that have gone before. Back to Line
1083] earthly: earthly nature. Back to Line
1088] brown: dark (cf. IV, 246 and n.). Back to Line
1090] them: the heavenly shapes. Back to Line
1091] as in: since we are in, a Latinism. Back to Line
1094] obnoxious: liable. Back to Line
1101] The fig-tree here referred to is the banyan or Indian fig; hence the place names introduced; Malabar, the southwestern coast of India; Decan, the Indian peninsula in general, and the hinterland east of Goa in particular. In the detailed description of the tree Milton is following closely Gerard's popular Herbal (1597). Back to Line
1111] Amazonian targe: the light shields of the Amazons. Back to Line
1117] feather'd cincture: here, a loin-cloth made of, or adorned with feathers. Back to Line
1121] Readers familiar with Milton's description of the Chaos (P.L., II, 891 ff.; VII, 210-15) would recognize a reflection of Chaos in the minds of Adam and Eve. Back to Line
1132] style: cf. speech. Back to Line
1133] intermitted: which had been interrupted. Back to Line
1154] Eve was made by God from a rib taken from Adam's side (Genesis 2:21-22: P.L., VIII, 452-77). Back to Line
1164] mine: my love. express'd / Immutable: shown to be unchangeable. Back to Line
1175] confidence: overconfidence. Back to Line
Publication Start Year: 
Publication Notes: 
In ten books.
RPO poem Editors: 
Hugh MacCallum; A. S. P. Woodhouse
RPO Edition: 
3RP 1.279-305.