Biography: 

José-Maria de Heredia (1842-1905) was born in Cuba of a Spanish father and a French mother. Educated in France, he became the disciple and close friend of Leconte de Lisle. Like the latter, he cultivates erudition, impersonality, and perfection of form. Heredia excelled in sonnets, and these were made into a collection by him in 1893 under the tide Les Trophées.

Biography: 

Leconte de Lisle (1818-1894) was born on Reunion Island off East Africa. He studied law in France but spent his life as a journalist and translator. Like Vigny, he is a pessimist, but he refuses to express his personal despair. He turns for inspiration to the classics and the Orient.

Biography: 

Alfred de Musset (1810-1857) belonged to a distinguished family. After brilliant studies, he became a popular member of fashionable society and began to write poetry and plays.

Biography: 

Christopher John Brennan was born in Sydney, Australia in 1870 of Irish parents. Brennan first studied for the priesthood, but abandoned his vocation at St. Ignatius College for the University of Sydney. There Brennan concentrated on classics and philosophy, graduating from the University with first class honours in 1891.

Biography: 
  • McClaurin-Allen, Irma. "Audre Lorde". Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 41: Afro-American Poets Since 1955. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by Trudier Harris, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Thadious M. Davis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The Gale Group, 1985. pp. 217-222.
Biography: 
  • Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002.
  • Bevington, Helen. Dr. Johnson's Waterfall, and Other Poems. Boston: Houghton, 1946.
  • --. Nineteen Million Elephants, and Other Poems. Boston: Houghton, 1950.
  • --.A Change of Sky, and Other Poems. Boston: Houghton, 1956.
Biography: 
  • Baker, William. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 184: Nineteenth-Century British Book-Collectors and Bibliographers. Ed. William Baker and Kenneth Womack. The Gale Group, 1997: 138-151.
  • Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001.
Biography: 

Born March 17, 1832, in Percy, Northumberland, Joseph Skipsey was a colliery worker at seven years of age. He made himself educated, publishing verse in local newspapers until he was gradually able to leave harsh labour behind him. He earned a living as caretaker to schools and colleges. He and his wife Sara Ann Hendley, married in 1854, had eight children.

Biography: 

Thomas Pringle was born January 5, 1789, in Blaiklaw, Roxburghshire, and educated at Kelso and afterwards, in 1805, at Edinburgh University. He became clerk, Commissioner of the Public Records of Scotland, and co-editor, Edinburgh Monthly Magazine and Constable's Magazine, in 1817.

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