Biography: 

Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869) was born of a noble family at Mâcon, where he spent a happy childhood with his mother and sisters. In October 1816 Lamartine visited Aix-les-Bains where he met Madame Julie Charles, who, as Elvire, was to inspire many of the poems in the famous Méditations poétiques.

Biography: 

Alfred de Vigny (1797-1863) was a rather austere man, proud of his noble birth and the restrictive demands of the military career which was traditional in his family.

Biography: 

Alfred de Musset (1810-1857) belonged to a distinguished family. After brilliant studies, he became a popular member of fashionable society and began to write poetry and plays.

Biography: 
  • Groves, Jeffrey D., "Chivers, Thomas Holley," American National Biography Online (American Council of Learned Societies, 2000).
Biography: 
  • Thomas Cole's Poetry. Ed. Marshall B. Tymn. York: Liberty Cap Books, 1972.
  • Wallach, Alan. "Cole, Thomas." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Biography: 
  • Flibbert, Joseph. "Dana, Richard Henry." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Biography: 
  • Evelev, John. "Willis, Nathaniel Parker." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Biography: 
  • Baym, Nina. "Sigourney, Lydia." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Biography: 
  • Mezo, Richard E. "Drake, Joseph Rodman." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Biography: 
  • Hargreaves, Mary W. M. "Adams, John Quincy." American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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